Online Security in Embedded Systems

These days many gadgets with embedded systems are being used. Tablets, Netbooks and Desktop Clients. Many of these are used to make secure transactions like Banking. It is also used as a Security Device for Web Applications and Website Memberships.

The secure transaction process has improved. I know there is encryption and also the NIC number of Ethernet cards etc. I have some thought, i think i will note it here. In one sentence “Make Every CPU Chip Unique with a Unerasable ROM ID Code or Signature” this can also be tied to a QR Code.  A Firmware query spawned by a SSL TCP/IP action will return the CHIP ID which enables secure communication and device tracking overriding all user controls.

Online Security in Embedded Systems

Processor manufactures and Chip IP makers are standardized. The Secure CPU makers should obtain a license for secure CPU, which will be a CPU but with a Secure Transaction Chip with Unique Identification Code engraved within. Each Chip is unique and a replacement of CPU needs new authentication for all transactions. No two chips are made the same, the unique numbers are not on flash (like BIOS), but digitally etched-burnt with indelible e-ink. So when a person makes transaction his computer is more securely authorized. More security options like GPS in CPU for big transactions, these computers will be expensive too.

Just take and online books library as an example, A person pays a subscription fee to read in the library for a few hours or owns a book online. The library can securely deliver pages only for online viewing. Only one Login from the User ID, either on his portable device or Desktop Client. Both the CPU numbers are in the records of the user profile. A secure circulating library or books store is possible. Many may not buy, but may be members. Some may buy a hard copy and own electronic versions as it is search able and easy notes can be made. Publishers can offer books for circulation or ownership and set their prices.

(First posted in delabs Notes 2006 – Then in Nomadic Computing 2007)

Usability and Accessibility Enhancements

Tablets have tools for Communication, Browsing and Many Utilities. It needs to be usable by very old people and very young ones as well.  They need to be affordable and Robust too. Ability to survive falls, Grime, Water and Heat. It should be usable by people having Health issues too.

Usability and Accessibility Enhancements

Alert sounds likes chimes and rings are not enough, The Tablet must be able to yell and scream when it is far from the owner. The user needs to wear  a Bluetooth pendent with microphone .

When charge is low, it has to create a tantrum till it is fed…up. Some pricey models can have tiny wheels to move to the closest charging bunk. Some Vacuum Cleaners are able to move and recharge themselves.

When a SMS lands, it is able to read out loud and take a reply by voice and send it at once. Similarly the email could work on the tablets, all hands-free. The speakers and quality audio are on the tablet/pad and the pendent is just an additional microphone with bluetooth and vibrator with a titillate option.

Incoming  calls can move in tandem with an answering device and make loud Audio Visual Effects to get the attention of the Owner. The caller cannot wait, so the answering machine takes the call, says “please wait” and then rings the Alert Alarm Bells and even vibrates the Pendent. The Senior now can talk to the pendent and will get the caller’s voice loud on the Phone. The Phone Audio has to be very good and loud.

If the room has a connected HD Monitor, even that can be used for the communication purpose. The user just needs to click the pendent to answer a call or video chat with family friends. In Business too, Large monitors and Loud Speakers can improve communication.

Smart PowerPacks or PowerBanks+ can be the Charging Stations. The Power Packs with docks can have the wheels and intelligence to recharge the device on alert, they will also recharge themselves from the mains power, whenever required.

Expensive Phone or PowerPack Models can have Drone Mode. I say this emphatically because the Dilbert Dupey develops wings after the mutation, This indicates that quad-copters, drones were predicted. It could be that, One fine Day the Tablet+ may Fly!

Aug 2014 – delabs Technologies

Resistors and How they Work

Resistors start from Wires to Wirewound Types. Carbon Film Resistors are most Common, Metal Film Resistors are more stable and accurate. We have now SMD types with lower power some are Laser Trimmed Types for accurate values. Resistors Arrays are used in Digital Circuits.

Types of Resistors – Color code and Other Resources

1/4 W Resistors have a Voltage rating of around 200-250V. Even when using a High value like 1 Meg use two in series when it is across Mains 230 V AC. 470K + 470K – you get around a Meg at 500V Rating.

Resistors and How they Work

Resistor 1/4W Metal Film
A standard range of 1/4W Metal Film Resistors suitable for most applications. High stability and solid construction ensure a long and stable life. 1% tolerance for the full range from 1R to 10M.

Riedon Resistors – Wirewound, Thick & Thin Film, and also Foil resistive elements.current sense, high pulse, high surge, surface mount, power and precision wirewound resistors.

High Performance Resistor Networks from Caddock – precision resistors, high voltage resistors, current sense resistors, chip resistors, high frequency resistors, and load resistors.

Ohmite’s Audio Gold resistors have been carefully engineered with non-magnetic materials to eliminate the effects of these stray magnetic fields on circuit performance. Ohmite’s LVC Series low value chip resistors are ideal for today’s current sense applications requiring low profile, low cost solutions

Wired Wi-Fi or WiGig for enhancing Range

You have a big office of 3 Floors or a Home which is not Wi-Fi Friendly and it does not have the provision for LAN or any other wiring. Even a distant room/garage or basement beyond the Wi-Fi range.

Wireless Gigabit Alliance – WiGig 60 GHz

If we could build a Wired interface for Wi-Fi and WiGig then such rooms can be brought within range. A wired interface without wires, then you think of optics, not even optic fiber …. that will build up the cost for home networks.

Wave Guide may be an answer, a wire that pretends to be a waveguide. Let us take a thin flexible plastic tube, 2-3 mm in dia, 1mm wall thickness of tube. The outer wall of the 3mm tube is coated with a suitable copper alloy. Above that a thick insulation to protect from mechanical damage. This may act as a waveguide if properly designed, probably the way or pattern in which the metal is coated.

Wired Wi-Fi or WiGig for enhancing Range

 

Fixed WiMAX SoC and RF Module – Fujitsu

If this works in theory, then Pump RF on one end with a little more juice, just like in Optic fibers. The other end may get enough signal strength for good speed connectivity. It will at least be still wi-fi on waveguide and easier to implement than RJ45, these LAN cables, connectors and switches include many components and modules, that make it very fussy and unreliable.

Wi-Fi seems to be very friendly and safety has also improved now. So a wired, one wire or waveguide to extend Wi-Fi can phase out the RJ45. I like RJ45 similar to the sentiments i have for the Printer Port and RS232. Then USB has just taken over. Change is inevitable, Find a way out of RJ45 for good.

delabs 2010

Wireless Handheld Multimedia Computers

The Average home user or a majority of mankind have trouble even when operating a TV remote control. Things are not as simple as a Water Tap or a Toggle Switch. An Easy to use Handheld is more important than any technology or features that may be available for that. Ergonomics, Utility or Application, Quality and Cost are the basic requirements of the consumer.

Wireless Handheld Multimedia Computers

A Handheld gadget for the masses, needs to be a Entertainer and Communicator. It has to be wireless and should at least get into a Coat Inner pocket or Small Bag. It is a Duarble Consumer Electronics Product, comparable to the first Popular Tape Recorders from Philips or Grundig.

Wireless Gigabit Alliance – WiGig 60 GHz

Wifi and WiMax are the things that are being talked-blogged about and being tried. I just got some idea about these technologies and have my feedback or understanding.

If Somebody asked me to set up a low cost wifi connectivity in a small housing complex, I would just strap a wireless router on the pole on every street corner, the poles or junctions being the ones used for existing cable broadband. Then depending on subscriptions and demand, improve the capacity of the network within the budget of the colony.

The handheld can have simultaneous connection to two or three routers and as the person moves, drop a weak path and take up a new router which is strong. This is just my hunch.

The Handheld could be used for three types of wireless connections.

Full Multimedia Duplex – Like Video Telephone, WebApps – 100 units money charge per hour.

Semi Multimedia Duplex – Like Interactive Quiz, Games – Up is Text, Down is Video – 50 Units /hr.


Multimedia Broadcast – Digital Radio Podcast, TV Show Podcast, Movie Podcast – 15 Units/hr.

The TV and Radio Shows on subscribed podcasts can be downloaded and stored when it is transmitted live; but seen any time, any number of times, but transmitted only once. This is a wireless Transmission with an advance program xml feed info. It is just like Regular TV. This is to avoid bandwidth wastage on multiple downloads of same show by the people in one block. Even software updates and games can be brodcast and stored in background.

The usage of Internet and phone remains duplex and will take more resources. The handheld usage for entertainment may be very high. Duplex for that will cause excess costly load. Normal usage of Internet for browsing, mail and webapps may become difficult as more entertainment load builds. Entertainment on Handheld is best as a one time brodcast with a advance feed.

Drawing Tools for Electronic Schematics in Android

Conclusion – Wireless Handhelds connectivity must have separate interfaces for Web and Media. The Web is the same as Lan Wifi but Movies and Games can be connected by a Broadcast Show. And seen on Handheld by wireless Programmable Live Reception with storage.

delabs around 07-08 – First in Nomadic Computing

Wireless Home Automation and Application Server

The PC has much Evolved, From XT to AT, then from 286 to 586, the evolutionary trend continues. The Speed: GHz, Space: GB and Software: Linux-XP, have grown rapidly. The other vital things Interface, Networking and Power Consumption moved a bit slower. So some suggestions on the New Desktop for Small Office and Home Standard, that is crucial in the present computing scenario.

Enterprise Level Hardware and Software can be extrapolated from this idea for a SOHO. An Enterprise is like a SOHO Cluster. One big Homogeneous Entity is unstable and unreliable. When small varied, self-dependent entities collaborate to form an Enterprise, it is a Cluster of SOHOs, which is a Reliable and Resilient Entity.

Wireless Home Automation and Application Server

A Green solution could be New Desktop Computing Standard – The quiescent losses in this is only the wifi server cube, which can serve 6 tablets or UMPC. So if 6-12 people are using computers, many desktops need not be on. Tablets, Laptops and Notebooks consume less power and run on batteries. Thin Custom Notebook and Tablet Clients can use one OpenOffice on the WiFi Application Server cube

Nomadic Computing – WebOS – 2004

Nomadic Computing - WebOS

SOHO Desktop Standard

  • The Desktop Home Computer is the Wireless Router, Power Server.
  • SMPS Power Supply runs Both on 230V-110V AC and 12-24 V DC.
  • Home Wifi Computer, Application and Web Server is just a Cube.
  • Wireless Networked Peripherals, Printers, Drives, Viewers, Inputs.
  • Desktop Wifi Server networks 6 Handhelds and 12 peripherals.
  • Wireless Ethernet LCD Monitor-Keyboard for System Admin.
First posted in 2006 – delabs

LED Running lights CD4017

This is a Gadget Tutorial for this Article LED Running lights CD4017 – Live Gadget Page.

Red Button Powers LED Running Lights, 555 Clock is counted by CD4017. Adjust R2, See ToolTips. This Demo shows LM555 running a CD4017 Counter to drive Ten Leds sequentially.

Press the Red button below to turn on the circuit press it again to turn off, i have put a new battery and did the wiring for you. The Red LED will flash according to the state of the 555 output at pin 3. The decade counter-divider CD4017 has 10 outputs, for every low to high transition, rising edge, the counter advances one LED. After going one full circle the the first LED lights again and it goes on…..

LED Running lights CD4017

The 10 outputs have 10 green LEDs. The current thru the LED is limited by R1, the current can be calculated like this (9V – 1.6V) / 1K = 7.4mA this is within 20mA which is the danger limit of the CMOS output. You want it to be bright use transistors for every output.