Tags8051 Analog-Mixed Analytical-Medical Arduino ARM Atmel-AVR Communications Compilers-Assemblers Computers delabs-Portfolio design-notes Device-Networking Digital-Design Educational-Systems EMI-RFI-EMC Energy-Systems Engineering-Services Fiber-Optics Foundry-Wafer Industrial-Automation IoT-M2M-WSN-COR LED-Lighting Manufacturing-Services Material-Science Mechatronics MEMS Microelectronics Office-Automation Organizations-Associations Power-Supply-Modules Research-and-Development RTOS Simulation-SPICE SOC-FPGA SSR Standards-Quality Tech-Companies Technical-Computing Technical-Reference Temperature Test-Measurement usability Verification-Testing Workplace-Product-Safety
SectionsAnalog Design ASIC EDA Basic Electronics Circuits Data Interface Design Design Services Discrete Passive Distributors and Suppliers Electrical Electro Mechanical Embedded Handheld Portables Instrumentation Integrated Circuits Main Power Electronics Process Control Projects RF Wireless Robotics Software and Computing Training Consulting
You have a big office of 3 Floors or a Home which is not Wi-Fi Friendly and it does not have the provision for LAN or any other wiring. Even a distant room/garage or basement beyond the Wi-Fi range.
If we could build a Wired interface for Wi-Fi and WiGig then such rooms can be brought within range. A wired interface without wires, then you think of optics, not even optic fiber …. that will build up the cost for home networks.
Wave Guide may be an answer, a wire that pretends to be a waveguide. Let us take a thin flexible plastic tube, 2-3 mm in dia, 1mm wall thickness of tube. The outer wall of the 3mm tube is coated with a suitable copper alloy. Above that a thick insulation to protect from mechanical damage. This may act as a waveguide if properly designed, probably the way or pattern in which the metal is coated.
If this works in theory, then Pump RF on one end with a little more juice, just like in Optic fibers. The other end may get enough signal strength for good speed connectivity. It will at least be still wi-fi on waveguide and easier to implement than RJ45, these LAN cables, connectors and switches include many components and modules, that make it very fussy and unreliable.
Wi-Fi seems to be very friendly and safety has also improved now. So a wired, one wire or waveguide to extend Wi-Fi can phase out the RJ45. I like RJ45 similar to the sentiments i have for the Printer Port and RS232. Then USB has just taken over. Change is inevitable, Find a way out of RJ45 for good.
The Average home user or a majority of mankind have trouble even when operating a TV remote control. Things are not as simple as a Water Tap or a Toggle Switch. An Easy to use Handheld is more important than any technology or features that may be available for that. Ergonomics, Utility or Application, Quality and Cost are the basic requirements of the consumer.
A Handheld gadget for the masses, needs to be a Entertainer and Communicator. It has to be wireless and should at least get into a Coat Inner pocket or Small Bag. It is a Duarble Consumer Electronics Product, comparable to the first Popular Tape Recorders from Philips or Grundig.
Wifi and WiMax are the things that are being talked-blogged about and being tried. I just got some idea about these technologies and have my feedback or understanding.
If Somebody asked me to set up a low cost wifi connectivity in a small housing complex, I would just strap a wireless router on the pole on every street corner, the poles or junctions being the ones used for existing cable broadband. Then depending on subscriptions and demand, improve the capacity of the network within the budget of the colony.
The handheld can have simultaneous connection to two or three routers and as the person moves, drop a weak path and take up a new router which is strong. This is just my hunch.
The Handheld could be used for three types of wireless connections.
Full Multimedia Duplex – Like Video Telephone, WebApps – 100 units money charge per hour.
Semi Multimedia Duplex – Like Interactive Quiz, Games – Up is Text, Down is Video – 50 Units /hr.
Multimedia Broadcast – Digital Radio Podcast, TV Show Podcast, Movie Podcast – 15 Units/hr.
The TV and Radio Shows on subscribed podcasts can be downloaded and stored when it is transmitted live; but seen any time, any number of times, but transmitted only once. This is a wireless Transmission with an advance program xml feed info. It is just like Regular TV. This is to avoid bandwidth wastage on multiple downloads of same show by the people in one block. Even software updates and games can be brodcast and stored in background.
The usage of Internet and phone remains duplex and will take more resources. The handheld usage for entertainment may be very high. Duplex for that will cause excess costly load. Normal usage of Internet for browsing, mail and webapps may become difficult as more entertainment load builds. Entertainment on Handheld is best as a one time brodcast with a advance feed.
Conclusion – Wireless Handhelds connectivity must have separate interfaces for Web and Media. The Web is the same as Lan Wifi but Movies and Games can be connected by a Broadcast Show. And seen on Handheld by wireless Programmable Live Reception with storage.
delabs around 07-08 – First in Nomadic Computing
The PC has much Evolved, From XT to AT, then from 286 to 586, the evolutionary trend continues. The Speed: GHz, Space: GB and Software: Linux-XP, have grown rapidly. The other vital things Interface, Networking and Power Consumption moved a bit slower. So some suggestions on the New Desktop for Small Office and Home Standard, that is crucial in the present computing scenario.
Enterprise Level Hardware and Software can be extrapolated from this idea for a SOHO. An Enterprise is like a SOHO Cluster. One big Homogeneous Entity is unstable and unreliable. When small varied, self-dependent entities collaborate to form an Enterprise, it is a Cluster of SOHOs, which is a Reliable and Resilient Entity.
A Green solution could be New Desktop Computing Standard – The quiescent losses in this is only the wifi server cube, which can serve 6 tablets or UMPC. So if 6-12 people are using computers, many desktops need not be on. Tablets, Laptops and Notebooks consume less power and run on batteries. Thin Custom Notebook and Tablet Clients can use one OpenOffice on the WiFi Application Server cube
Nomadic Computing – WebOS – 2004
SOHO Desktop Standard
- The Desktop Home Computer is the Wireless Router, Power Server.
- SMPS Power Supply runs Both on 230V-110V AC and 12-24 V DC.
- Home Wifi Computer, Application and Web Server is just a Cube.
- Wireless Networked Peripherals, Printers, Drives, Viewers, Inputs.
- Desktop Wifi Server networks 6 Handhelds and 12 peripherals.
- Wireless Ethernet LCD Monitor-Keyboard for System Admin.
First posted in 2006 – delabs
This is a Gadget Tutorial for this Article LED Running lights CD4017 – Live Gadget Page.
Red Button Powers LED Running Lights, 555 Clock is counted by CD4017. Adjust R2, See ToolTips. This Demo shows LM555 running a CD4017 Counter to drive Ten Leds sequentially.
Press the Red button below to turn on the circuit press it again to turn off, i have put a new battery and did the wiring for you. The Red LED will flash according to the state of the 555 output at pin 3. The decade counter-divider CD4017 has 10 outputs, for every low to high transition, rising edge, the counter advances one LED. After going one full circle the the first LED lights again and it goes on…..
The 10 outputs have 10 green LEDs. The current thru the LED is limited by R1, the current can be calculated like this (9V – 1.6V) / 1K = 7.4mA this is within 20mA which is the danger limit of the CMOS output. You want it to be bright use transistors for every output.
The LM111, LM211 and LM311 are voltage comparators that have input currents nearly a thousand times lower than devices like the LM106 or LM710. They are also designed to operate over a wider range of supply voltages: from standard ±15V op amp supplies down to the single 5V supply used for IC logic.
Both the inputs and the outputs of the LM111, LM211 or the LM311 can be isolated from system ground, and the output can drive loads referred to ground, the positive supply or the negative supply. Offset balancing and strobe capability are provided and outputs can be wire ORed.
- Operates from single 5V supply
- Input current: 150 nA max. over temperature
- Offset current: 20 nA max. over temperature
- Differential input voltage range: ±30V
- Power consumption: 135 mW at ±15V
Related Resources –
This page provides basic information about voltage comparator integrated circuits and is to act as reference material for other circuits. The circuits shown are based on the LM339 Quad Voltage Comparator chip or the LM393 Dual Voltage Comparator chip. These devices are functionally the same. The LM311 Voltage Comparator can be used for these applications as well but it also has a number of unique features.
An LM311 in a comparator circuit is shown at the right, with the pin numbers for the connections. The open-collector output is at pin 7, and the ground for this transistor is at pin 1. It is shown pulled up to the logic voltage of +5 with a 1k resistor, which is typical. The output of the LM311 can sink 8 mA. A comparator’s output is essentially binary, YES or NO.
Proportional Controllers not only save energy, they can give a controlled finish or treatment to a job. An on-off controller or thermostat limit protection has to be used in series, this is to to stop a Runaway Process.
There was a real life instance when a Temperature cycling oven maker (environment chamber), faced large liabilities as an 8086 based profile controller and chart recorder just locked up and all the electronic equipment were roasted. Here even a bimetallic thermostat would have saved the day. Nowadays we have a watchdog timer to prevent such uP mishaps, but still use an analog controller in series as an over temperature trip.
“This series of six articles will explore the use of six variations of P, I, and D gains: Proportional Control, Proportional-Integral Control, Psueodo-derivative feedback with feed-forwared (PDFF), PID control, PID+ control, and Proportional Derivative Control.”
SG2525 – SG3525 – PWM SMPS Regulator Chip. A second generation ic switch mode controller optimized for high frequency.
The SG3525A pulse width modulator control circuit offers improved performance and lower external parts count when implemented for controlling all types of switching power supplies. The on-chip +5.1 V reference is trimmed to +/-1% and the error amplifier has an input common-mode voltage range that includes the reference voltage, thus eliminating the need for external divider resistors. Half Bridge, Push-Pull.
SG3525 usage in SMPS 500W – It was used in Parallel for Electroplating with a central Load sharing control between modules.
- 8.0 V to 35 V Operation
- 5.1 V +/- 1.0% Trimmed Reference
- 100 Hz to 400 kHz Oscillator Range
- Separate Oscillator Sync Pin
- Adjustable Deadtime Control
- Input Undervoltage Lockout
- Latching PWM to Prevent Multiple Pulses
- Pulse-by-Pulse Shutdown
- Dual Source/Sink Outputs: +/- 400 mA Peak