Basic Analog for Digital Designers

“There is a long gap between engineering college and mid career in a non-engineering position, but technology marches on so a simple method of keeping abreast with the latest developments is required. This application note starts with an overview of the basic laws of physics, progresses through circuits 1 and 2, and explains op amp operation through the use of feedback principles.”

Basic Analog for Digital Designers – Application Note

Basic Analog for Digital Designers

AN9510.2 October 19, 2004 – This is an Analog Reference for the Embedded Engineer. An Application Note from Intersil Tech Reference.

  1. Basic Physics Laws, Circuit Theorems and Analysis
  2. Ohm’s and Kirchoff’s Laws
  3. Voltage and Current Dividers
  4. Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems
  5. Networks in the Feedback Path
  6. Types of Opamp Configurations
  7. Video Amplifiers


Some algebra, the basic laws of physics, and the basic circuit laws are adequate to gain an understanding of op amp circuits. By applying these tools to various circuit configurations it is possible to predict performance. Further in-depth knowledge is required to do op amp design, and there are many sources where this knowledge can be obtained. Don’t hesitate to try some of these tricks on your local circuit design engineer, but be aware that it may result in a long lecture about circuit design.

Visual Embedded RAD

Just like an electronic circuit is a graphical representation of what will be on the PCB. Firmware development should be a 2D graphical diagram of what goes into eeprom.

An example is the Ladder Logic software that can program 80C51 types in a Fanuc, Allen Bradley or Siemens PLCs. Then many people can do at least restricted firmware programming for some embedded solutions.

Build a DMM or digital multi meter

Visual Embedded RAD. This is more like code snippets inserted in code in the background when user drags and drops a Hardware Function or Program Method. The Environment is Visual, but Code is compact as same modules or blocks used. There is no C or Intermediate Language. Visual to Binary Hex Direct.

(Idea – Mar-04, Revised again – 4 April 2008, Nature – Open Source Anantha Narayan )

The Motor Bicycle

At late 40s I am into riding Geared Cycles. A Cycle Guru says it is the ‘Cadence’ in pedaling speed. What I need is a ‘Mentor’ for the Methodology behind Optimum Gear usage.

Mixed Circuits Analog with Digital

But some people are developing what will become well known as The Motor Bicycle, funny names.

Updated Nov 2015

Constant LED Brightness and LDS8711

The LDS8711 is a fixed frequency current mode boost converter with internal rectifier and cycle-by- cycle switch current limit specifically designed to drive a string of up to 10 White LEDs.

Constant LED Brightness and LDS8711

Aa Switching Converter Chip with hardly any external components driving a HB LED chain. HB – High Brightness LED. This IC is from IXYS Power Devices.

High efficiency boost converter with the input voltage range from 2.7 to 5.5 V . Drives one LED string with 10 LEDs in series up to 32 mA.

  • 250 mV current sense voltage
  • No external Schottky Required
  • 0.7 MHz Switching Frequency
  • Efficiency greater than 83%
  • PWM LED Brightness Control
  • Low Shutdown Current (<1µA)

LED Current Setting – The maximum current value in the LED string may be factory preset in the range from 10 to 30mAin 0.125mA steps, or set by Smart OneWire interface in the range from 0.125to 32 mA.The average LED string current that determines LED brightness may be controlled applying PWM signal to the EN/PWM pin.

74HCT373 Octal transparent D-type latches

CD74HCT373 – High Speed CMOS Logic Octal Transparent Latches with 3-State Outputs

The ‘HCT373 devices are octal transparent D-type latches. When the latch-enable (LE) input is high, the Q outputs follow the data (D) inputs. When LE is low, the Q outputs are latched at the logic levels of the D inputs.

From – 74HCT373 Texas Instruments

What it can do ?

This is like a Byte of Memory, A Byte means 8 Bits. A Bit Means one Input or Output Pin of an IC, Which understands Logic 1 is High and Logic 0 is Low.

74HCT373 Octal transparent D-type latches

The HCT works well with old TTL and CMOS families. This takes very less Power (battery lasts longer). It switches very fast (the computation is done faster). Its got good symmetrical output drive. Means Source and Sink both nice.

When you run out of ports I/O in your favorite uC, This guy will come to your rescue. Simple way is to Put four of this and Interconnect or Bus their Data inputs D0-D7. Then Connect this Bus to 8 Ports of our uC Chip. Enable the Output of all of them. Use 4 ports from your uC to latch each one with the data you want to be outputted. Now you have 8×4 32 Bits output. This comes at a small cost, the clock time, but negligible. In the same way you can enhance the Input ports, use the 373, the other way around with OE.

This all means more Keys, Sensors, Motors, Relays can be accommodated. By Multiplexing Matrix even more can be achieved. You can also expand Analog Inputs using Analog Multiplexers. Try CD4051 or even FETs.

Integrated Device Technology – IDT – Semiconductors

Leadership in digital technologies, coupled with its in-house analog capabilities. They have solutions for Computing, Communications and Consumer Electronics. They Streamline data transmission and data-communication in the Networks.

Integrated Device Technology – IDT – Semiconductors

The Product Line includes Clock / Timing Devices , Display / Video Solutions, Memory Interface Products and SRAMs. For Small Computing devices there are Touch Products, Processors and USB/PCI Express Chips. They also manufacture RISCore 64-bit Processors for large computing systems.

Integrated Device Technology - IDT - Semiconductors

DAC1653Q-DB High-Performance 16-bit Quad DAC

“The DAC1653Q-DB evaluation board features the DAC1658Q high-speed quad channel 16-bit DAC with high common mode voltage. The DAC1653Q-DB evaluation board is suitable for dynamic performance evaluation from low to high output frequency configurations.”

Founded 1980, Corporate headquarters in San Jose, California.

Integrated Device Technology – IDT – Semiconductors
6024 Silver Creek Valley Road, San Jose, CA 95138, United States.

Utility of Testing and Troubleshooting Tools

Utility of Testing and Troubleshooting Tools : The first thing in Electrical testing is the Continuity Tester, Then we use the Neon Mains Screwdriver, Then we need an Voltmeter or an Ammeter. In electronics we need a OhmMeter and LCR meter too.

Many times we cannot carry big or expensive test instruments to the field, so we have to have a troubleshooting tool kit. Continuity testers, Logic Probes, DMM, Clamp Meters etc..

Simple Test Equipment

It also is sometimes required to build a quick jig or fixture with electronics to troubleshoot, simulate a problem or to test the reliability or aging of components and systems. Here you need to be cost effective, fast and innovative; and build a simple system with available, affordable or procurable resources. Hence a bit of circuit design, firmware and software are essential skills for production engineering.

Digital Multimeter DMM

Small Electronic Testing Tools

You can troubleshoot and repair Electronic Equipment easily with Meters and Continuity Testers.

Small Electronic Testing Tools – delabs


Wolfram Apps for EE Design

I feel that Analog Insydes, Control System Professional, Fuzzy Logic and Signals and Systems are relevant to Electronic Design.

Wolfram Workbench: State-of-the-Art Integrated Development Environment

Wolfram Workbench provides sophisticated code editing, navigation, and project management tools for enterprise-class development and deployment.

Wolfram Apps

Analog Insydes is a Mathematica application package for modeling, analysis, and design of analog electronic circuits, tailored specifically for industrial applications. With Analog Insydes and Mathematica you can do all of the following in one integrated environment.

Simulating a feedback control system with controller and second-order plant

Industry Solutions for Engineering – Control Systems

Build and analyze control systems, document design decisions, and interactively test controllers-all in one system.