This is a prototype of a Preset Counter. It is built with ICM7217. The cabinet is ABS Plastic DIN 96-96. The Panel is Engraved on Acrylic.
I don’t remember for which application it was used. It has three thumbwheel settings, when the proximity switch counts upto the set-value, the corresponding relay turns ON, with a State Indicating LED on front panel.
These can be configured sequentially or to work synchronously, this depends on what customer wants. Both modes may give the same result. In sequential operation, Some of these counters-timers may need to wait for an external trigger or feedback from a limit switch or another process like pressure alarm. Then more Input options may have to be provided.
Basic Electronic Digital Circuits
Counters, timers, analog-process and its interconnectivity makes up the various process loops or chain-reactions in Machine control. The various types of sensors for measurement and feedback of analog and event parameters, monitor the mechanical system and communicate the data to the process instruments.
The below circuit is a reference, i used the old intersil hot ideas book. There was no internet then. Databooks were valuable reference material. In the below timer circuit replace the clock with a schmitt trigger signal conditioning, it becomes a event counter or preset counter with thumbwheel input. See photograph above.
The Actuators like Drives, Solenoids, Pumps, Valves and Heaters act in accordance to the commands of the control system. This regulates and manages the process or machine to deliver consistent and repeatable yield of the end product.
Proportional Controllers not only save energy, they can give a controlled finish or treatment to a job. An on-off controller or thermostat limit protection has to be used in series, this is to to stop a Runaway Process.
There was a real life instance when a Temperature cycling oven maker (environment chamber), faced large liabilities as an 8086 based profile controller and chart recorder just locked up and all the electronic equipment were roasted. Here even a bimetallic thermostat would have saved the day. Nowadays we have a watchdog timer to prevent such uP mishaps, but still use an analog controller in series as an over temperature trip.
The basics of control system design: Part 1 – Moving beyond PID
“This series of six articles will explore the use of six variations of P, I, and D gains: Proportional Control, Proportional-Integral Control, Psueodo-derivative feedback with feed-forwared (PDFF), PID control, PID+ control, and Proportional Derivative Control.”
These are the circuits and boards of a Mini Temperature Transmitter for a Platinum hundred ohms temperature Sensor.
The customer wanted a two wire system, this needs low power opamps which were ten times the price. If this transmitter works at 3mA it could have been two wire. Those parts were in short supply and the budget of customer was low. So i made it with regular opamps but three wire. The customer was satisfied as he got a cost effective solution. But now the situation of markets and products are different.
RTD Three Wire Transmitter
If you need to transmit the temperature from a high voltage area or toxic environment. You will need to hermetically seal the transmitters, convert the Voltage to frequency, frequency to IR LED flashes or RF. This can be then remotely monitored. Then the transmitter has to be battery-solar operated, low power too. ICL7135 is a simple solution. It has a serial output that can be used to Drive IR Leds. Remotely sense these flashes in a Micro-controller and you have a reading. You may be able to use optic-fibers too. Where volatile liquids are present so that the risks of sparks can be eliminated.
More at Process Control Circuits
This is the same Mini RTD Pt-100 Transmitter but in its case. Encapsulated in epoxy, hermetically sealed against harsh industrial environment. This will work well even near fumes of Ammonia with no corrosion. But not near vapors which can be ignited by sparking as terminals are still open. The side view shows zero and full scale ten turn bourns trimpots heads, for calibration. After cal it can be sealed with RTV compound.
This is a Digital Panel Meter based on ICL7107. This was the workhorse Digital Readout chip before Low power uC designs were developed. Even now it is the easiest way an analog parameter can be displayed in an instrument.
Instrumentation and Measurement Circuits
3-1/2 Display is just enough resolution for recording process data or troubleshooting equipment. With 4-1/2 you notice the problems of thermoelectric EMF of probes and connectors. That is one reason gold plating is used another being low contact resistance. In 4 1/2 the reading can change due to contact resistance too, if the input impedance of the analog signal conditioning is low or the protection diodes, RC filter caps are leaky.
When you measure an analog parameter from a sensor; you attenuate or amplify it, to scale to the A/D converter range. You also need to protect or isolate the analog front end from high energy mis-connections, which will happen during field use. The operator should not get injured from any high energy leakage while measuring.
Resolution is the finest detail you can enumerate in a parameter or object. You can say the crowd was 3000 or 4000 people. Here 1000 is the resolution, finer data does not matter here. You would also hear things like, there were 80 to 90 boys in that classroom. 10 is the resolution there.
Accuracy is how precise a statement or number is. If there was 85 boys in that class, the above statement is accurate. If there was 65 boys, the measuring method or process needs calibration or examination.
In this circuit, the plastic caps should be of very low leakage. Multilayer plastic caps are good for instrumentation.