Basic Analog for Digital Designers

“There is a long gap between engineering college and mid career in a non-engineering position, but technology marches on so a simple method of keeping abreast with the latest developments is required. This application note starts with an overview of the basic laws of physics, progresses through circuits 1 and 2, and explains op amp operation through the use of feedback principles.”

Basic Analog for Digital Designers – Application Note

Basic Analog for Digital Designers

AN9510.2 October 19, 2004 – This is an Analog Reference for the Embedded Engineer. An Application Note from Intersil Tech Reference.

  1. Basic Physics Laws, Circuit Theorems and Analysis
  2. Ohm’s and Kirchoff’s Laws
  3. Voltage and Current Dividers
  4. Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems
  5. Networks in the Feedback Path
  6. Types of Opamp Configurations
  7. Video Amplifiers

Conclusion

Some algebra, the basic laws of physics, and the basic circuit laws are adequate to gain an understanding of op amp circuits. By applying these tools to various circuit configurations it is possible to predict performance. Further in-depth knowledge is required to do op amp design, and there are many sources where this knowledge can be obtained. Don’t hesitate to try some of these tricks on your local circuit design engineer, but be aware that it may result in a long lecture about circuit design.

Electronic Product Production

a. PCB Assembly.

First Inspect PCB for hairline shorts and cuts and also traces of unwanted copper in the edges and repair them. Also Check if all Drill holes & Slots are proper size and PCB is Fitting in its Place properly, This is because Drilling and Filing should not be done after assembly as it causes serious reliability problems.

Second populate all the resistors, Jumpers, Diodes and Ceramic Capacitors these are tough components. Then Insert all Transistors, LEDs, Displays, Electrolytic Capacitors and IC s (Bases), Here care should be taken not to overheat any component as it may damage them. Lastly Solder Connectors, Relays, Coils and Transformers which may require a high wattage Iron, and Mechanical Reinforcements.

Electronic Product Production

b. Precautions during Production.

  • Observe Polarity for Diodes, El-caps, Connectors, etc.
  • Make sure of Pin 1 for IC s, Regulators, Transistors and Mosfets before insertion.
  • Avoid bases for ICs in production as these fail on use.
  • Make use of Electrostatic protection for CMOS devices.
  • When Cutting Leads use protective Goggles and do it in a separate place as the cut leads fly all over the place.
  • Use Iso Propyl Alcohol (IPA) as de-greasing agent on PCB.
  • Water & Detergent wash is very good but only if coils, Transformers, Relays are hermetically sealed- Impregnated.

Use a Lacquer-Varnish or RTV rubber coat on both sides of PCB including on the components to prevent corrosion and also it helps maintain accuracy-precision.

Lead is a kind of poison, use gloves or wash hands with soap after work is over. Flux, IPA, Thinner Fumes can cause respiratory health problems. Work in a ventilated area use Exhaust Fans and Open Windows. Dispose of Metal, Plastic and Chemical waste separately and well packed as these can contaminate the environment and also cause Injury.

Published online around – Nov 1999

Weller Soldering tools – Cooper Industries

Rework/repair tools, soldering guns and irons and accessories. Desoldering Stations, Hot Air Stations, Portasol Irons/Hot Air Tools (Cordless Butane). They also have Soldering Gun Kits and Cleaning Tools.

Weller Soldering tools

Cooper Industries origins extend back more than 170 years to a small iron foundry in Mount Vernon, Ohio, started by brothers Charles and Elias Cooper in 1833. Today, Cooper Industries has become a leading worldwide manufacturer of electrical products and tools and hardware.

Cooper Industries

From Tech Products Preview – Electronic Tools and Industrial Equipment

60 Watts, 240v Temperature Controlled Soldering Station

Some Features

  • PU240T power unit,
  • TC201T soldering pencil,
  • PH1201ESD stand and sponge
  • A lighted rocker switch indicates on/off status
  • Comes with PTA7 tip
  • ESD safe to protect sensitive components

This is close to what i have, which is WTCP-S

EE Books of Hans Camenzind

Hans Camenzind book on Analog CMOS design is a good reference for students and covers Power Electronic concepts like Switching Regulators and Low Drop-Out Regulators. Designing Analog Chips by Hans Camenzind

The Delta-Sigma Converter A/D and Zero-Crossing Detectors on Mixed Design.

Communications circuits like Timers and Oscillators . Phase-Locked Loops and Filters too.

Designing Analog Chips by Hans Camenzind

Hans Camenzind was born and raised in Switzerland and moved to the U.S. after college. He received an MSEE from Northeastern University and an MBA from the University of Santa Clara. After several years doing research in the Boston area, he moved to the West Coast to join Signetics (now Philips) and later started his own company, Interdesign. After heading it for seven years he sold Interdesign to Plessey.

This is a Book every Electronic Enthusiast Wannabe needs. Like Basics and History Together to make it Appetizing. – Much Ado About Almost Nothing

Learn About Electronics – Eric Coates

Many pages, illustrations and Interactive demonstrations in Electronics. A new section on AC electronics, designed to teach the basics of AC Theory in 10 easy to learn modules. Individual topics too like capacitors, inductors, reactance, impedance, etc.

Inductor

Learn About Electronics – Eric Coates

The Step-by-Step Lessons in Electricity and Magnetism is very simple and full of nice Explaining Pictures. This will work up your appetite to learn more about the Physics and Chemistry in Electronics.

Eric Coates has 26 year practical career in electronics, and 17 years as a lecturer in vocational colleges in the UK.

Engineering and Technology – James B. Calvert

A Welath of Information is at the site – Dr James B. Calvert Associate Professor Emeritus of Engineering, University of Denver and Registered Professional Engineer, State of Colorado. An EE-Encyclopedia Almost.

Engineering and Technology – James B. Calvert

“An extensive series of pages based on experiments that can be done in the personal or home laboratory. The emphasis is on enjoyment and intellectual pleasure, but there is much practical matter as well.”

Electronics Index – Includes vacuum tubes and cathode-ray tubes, with many experiments for the home laboratory. Nixie clocks too.

The Atmel AVR microprocessors are very similar functionally to the PIC microprocessors, with the same range in size from 8-bit, 8-pin PDIP to 32-bit processors with 100 pins, and similar features.

Atmel AVR 8-Bit Microcontrollers

Atmel AVR 8-Bit Microcontrollers

The ATtiny13A will operate from a supply voltage as low as 1.8V (maximum clock speed 4 Mhz), and with a full 20 MHz clock speed at 4.5V and above. The current drain is much reduced at the lower supply voltages and clock frequencies.

A Magnetometer

It is easy to measure moderate magnetic fields using a Hall sensor, such as the Allegro A1302 linear Hall sensor, available from Jameco. A PIC12F675 can digitize the output of the sensor and display it on a serial LCD display, such as the Newhaven NHD-0216K3Z-FL-GBW 2 line x 16 digit display. This system is shown breadboarded in the figure at the right, measuring the field between the poles of a horseshoe magnet.

A Magnetometer

Heathkits – Learning with Practical Electronics

Heathkit was a well known supplier of electronic kits from 1947 through the early 1990’s (although no new kits were developed after 1986). An incredible number of kits were offered including test equipment, amateur and SWL radio, audio, televisions, computers, robotics, automotive and other items difficult to categorize.

Heathkits – Learning with Practical Electronics

THD Improvement kit for IG-18 series audio generators

THD Improvement kit

“The meter buffer is a crucial part of improving the THD specification of the IG-18. The non-linear loading of the analog output can create additional harmonic components due to the non-linearity of the diodes used to drive the meter.”

History and Antiquity

In 1947, Heath introduced its first electronic kit, an oscilloscope that sold for US$50 — the price was unbeatable at the time, and the oscilloscope went on to be a huge seller. Heathkit Wiki.

The Heathkit Virtual Museum, a tribute to the Heathkit era-a time when building electronic kits was a favorite pastime for many electronics hobbyists. This commemorative virtual showcase takes you back to the Heathkit age which began in the late 1940’s and lasted through the early 1990’s.

Then you ought to look around at Bill Wilkinson’s Heath Company Page if you want to know more.