The LM111, LM211 and LM311 are voltage comparators that have input currents nearly a thousand times lower than devices like the LM106 or LM710. They are also designed to operate over a wider range of supply voltages: from standard ±15V op amp supplies down to the single 5V supply used for IC logic.
LM311 – Voltage Comparator
Both the inputs and the outputs of the LM111, LM211 or the LM311 can be isolated from system ground, and the output can drive loads referred to ground, the positive supply or the negative supply. Offset balancing and strobe capability are provided and outputs can be wire ORed.
- Operates from single 5V supply
- Input current: 150 nA max. over temperature
- Offset current: 20 nA max. over temperature
- Differential input voltage range: ±30V
- Power consumption: 135 mW at ±15V
Related Resources –
Voltage Comparator Information And Circuits
This page provides basic information about voltage comparator integrated circuits and is to act as reference material for other circuits. The circuits shown are based on the LM339 Quad Voltage Comparator chip or the LM393 Dual Voltage Comparator chip. These devices are functionally the same. The LM311 Voltage Comparator can be used for these applications as well but it also has a number of unique features.
Comparators and Schmitt Triggers
An LM311 in a comparator circuit is shown at the right, with the pin numbers for the connections. The open-collector output is at pin 7, and the ground for this transistor is at pin 1. It is shown pulled up to the logic voltage of +5 with a 1k resistor, which is typical. The output of the LM311 can sink 8 mA. A comparator’s output is essentially binary, YES or NO.
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This is a Digital Panel Meter based on ICL7107. This was the workhorse Digital Readout chip before Low power uC designs were developed. Even now it is the easiest way an analog parameter can be displayed in an instrument.
Instrumentation and Measurement Circuits
3-1/2 Display is just enough resolution for recording process data or troubleshooting equipment. With 4-1/2 you notice the problems of thermoelectric EMF of probes and connectors. That is one reason gold plating is used another being low contact resistance. In 4 1/2 the reading can change due to contact resistance too, if the input impedance of the analog signal conditioning is low or the protection diodes, RC filter caps are leaky.
When you measure an analog parameter from a sensor; you attenuate or amplify it, to scale to the A/D converter range. You also need to protect or isolate the analog front end from high energy mis-connections, which will happen during field use. The operator should not get injured from any high energy leakage while measuring.
Resolution is the finest detail you can enumerate in a parameter or object. You can say the crowd was 3000 or 4000 people. Here 1000 is the resolution, finer data does not matter here. You would also hear things like, there were 80 to 90 boys in that classroom. 10 is the resolution there.
Accuracy is how precise a statement or number is. If there was 85 boys in that class, the above statement is accurate. If there was 65 boys, the measuring method or process needs calibration or examination.
In this circuit, the plastic caps should be of very low leakage. Multilayer plastic caps are good for instrumentation.
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The CD4093B consists of four Schmitt-trigger circuits. Each circuit functions as a 2-input NAND gate with Schmitt-trigger action on both inputs. The gate switches at different points for positive and negative-going signals.
CD4093 – Quad 2-Input NAND Schmitt Trigger
The difference be-tween the positive (VTa) and the negative voltage (VTb)isdefined as hysteresis voltage (VH). All outputs have equal source and sink currents and con-form to standard B-series output drive.
CD4093 is a very useful chip, as it has a Schmitt-trigger and it is a nand, cmos, low power. It can be even made to function like an amp in some configurations. It was used in debouncing circuits, oscillator circuits and input signal conditioning of digital circuits.
DMM range and AC-DC mode Logic
If you had a train of square pulses from a magnetic sensor or proximity sensor. You could use this as a monostable or singleshot to reject noise and get a clean square wave from a messy input.
These devices consist of four independent voltage comparators that are designed to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from dual supplies also is possible, as long as the difference between the two supplies is 2 V to 36 V, and VCC is at least 1.5 V more positive than the input common-mode voltage.
Quad General Purpose Differential Comparator – LM339
An application from an old TI datasheet showing the versatility of this comparator. For me it was a workhorse and like LM324 was used in many products.
Current drain is independent of the supply voltage. The outputs can be connected to other open-collector outputs to achieve wired-AND relationships.
Differential to TTL convertor using LM339
- Single Supply or Dual Supplies
- Wide Range of Supply Voltage:
- Low Supply-Current Drain Independent of Supply Voltage… 0.8 mA Typ
- Low Input Bias Current …25 nA Typ
- Low Input Offset Voltage . . . 2 mV Typ
- Common-Mode Input Voltage Range Includes Ground
- Differential Input Voltage Range Equal to Maximum-Rated Supply Voltage . . . Â±36 V
- Low Output Saturation Voltage
- Output Compatible With TTL, MOS, and CMOS
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