The LM111, LM211 and LM311 are voltage comparators that have input currents nearly a thousand times lower than devices like the LM106 or LM710. They are also designed to operate over a wider range of supply voltages: from standard ±15V op amp supplies down to the single 5V supply used for IC logic.
LM311 – Voltage Comparator
Both the inputs and the outputs of the LM111, LM211 or the LM311 can be isolated from system ground, and the output can drive loads referred to ground, the positive supply or the negative supply. Offset balancing and strobe capability are provided and outputs can be wire ORed.
- Operates from single 5V supply
- Input current: 150 nA max. over temperature
- Offset current: 20 nA max. over temperature
- Differential input voltage range: ±30V
- Power consumption: 135 mW at ±15V
Related Resources –
Voltage Comparator Information And Circuits
This page provides basic information about voltage comparator integrated circuits and is to act as reference material for other circuits. The circuits shown are based on the LM339 Quad Voltage Comparator chip or the LM393 Dual Voltage Comparator chip. These devices are functionally the same. The LM311 Voltage Comparator can be used for these applications as well but it also has a number of unique features.
Comparators and Schmitt Triggers
An LM311 in a comparator circuit is shown at the right, with the pin numbers for the connections. The open-collector output is at pin 7, and the ground for this transistor is at pin 1. It is shown pulled up to the logic voltage of +5 with a 1k resistor, which is typical. The output of the LM311 can sink 8 mA. A comparator’s output is essentially binary, YES or NO.
Proportional Controllers not only save energy, they can give a controlled finish or treatment to a job. An on-off controller or thermostat limit protection has to be used in series, this is to to stop a Runaway Process.
There was a real life instance when a Temperature cycling oven maker (environment chamber), faced large liabilities as an 8086 based profile controller and chart recorder just locked up and all the electronic equipment were roasted. Here even a bimetallic thermostat would have saved the day. Nowadays we have a watchdog timer to prevent such uP mishaps, but still use an analog controller in series as an over temperature trip.
The basics of control system design: Part 1 – Moving beyond PID
“This series of six articles will explore the use of six variations of P, I, and D gains: Proportional Control, Proportional-Integral Control, Psueodo-derivative feedback with feed-forwared (PDFF), PID control, PID+ control, and Proportional Derivative Control.”
SG2525 – SG3525 – PWM SMPS Regulator Chip. A second generation ic switch mode controller optimized for high frequency.
100kHz Half Bridge Convertor – SG3525
The SG3525A pulse width modulator control circuit offers improved performance and lower external parts count when implemented for controlling all types of switching power supplies. The on-chip +5.1 V reference is trimmed to +/-1% and the error amplifier has an input common-mode voltage range that includes the reference voltage, thus eliminating the need for external divider resistors. Half Bridge, Push-Pull.
SG3525 usage in SMPS 500W – It was used in Parallel for Electroplating with a central Load sharing control between modules.
- 8.0 V to 35 V Operation
- 5.1 V +/- 1.0% Trimmed Reference
- 100 Hz to 400 kHz Oscillator Range
- Separate Oscillator Sync Pin
- Adjustable Deadtime Control
- Input Undervoltage Lockout
- Latching PWM to Prevent Multiple Pulses
- Pulse-by-Pulse Shutdown
- Dual Source/Sink Outputs: +/- 400 mA Peak
Here are power supply, inverter, drives, chargers and high current equipment diagrams and links. There are Mosfet and Thyristor circuits too.
Power Electronics Section
Power Supplies, Inverters, UPS, Chargers, Electro Plating, Precision Welding-erosion, Coating Metals and many other Processes are made of high current circuits. Even in measurement of parameters like Micro-Ohm high currents are involved. Electronic Circuits are required in such products to give control to time, current, frequency and voltage in order to accomplish with the required precision a process or job.
In any power equipment, efficiency and reduction of bulk is crucial so SMPS and high frequency control is an important part of this domain. These products also generate EMI-RFI. Product Safety Study is also vital.
The Power Circuits Section has been updated.
These are the circuits and boards of a Mini Temperature Transmitter for a Platinum hundred ohms temperature Sensor.
The customer wanted a two wire system, this needs low power opamps which were ten times the price. If this transmitter works at 3mA it could have been two wire. Those parts were in short supply and the budget of customer was low. So i made it with regular opamps but three wire. The customer was satisfied as he got a cost effective solution. But now the situation of markets and products are different.
RTD Three Wire Transmitter
If you need to transmit the temperature from a high voltage area or toxic environment. You will need to hermetically seal the transmitters, convert the Voltage to frequency, frequency to IR LED flashes or RF. This can be then remotely monitored. Then the transmitter has to be battery-solar operated, low power too. ICL7135 is a simple solution. It has a serial output that can be used to Drive IR Leds. Remotely sense these flashes in a Micro-controller and you have a reading. You may be able to use optic-fibers too. Where volatile liquids are present so that the risks of sparks can be eliminated.
More at Process Control Circuits
This is the same Mini RTD Pt-100 Transmitter but in its case. Encapsulated in epoxy, hermetically sealed against harsh industrial environment. This will work well even near fumes of Ammonia with no corrosion. But not near vapors which can be ignited by sparking as terminals are still open. The side view shows zero and full scale ten turn bourns trimpots heads, for calibration. After cal it can be sealed with RTV compound.
Products include integrated circuits (silicon chips) in Bipolar, Bi-CMOS and CMOS technologies, thick film hybrids (ceramic substrate) and surface mounted printed circuit board assemblies and modules.
Hendon Semiconductors – Microelectronics Design
History -“The Hendon business site in Adelaide, South Australia has been a long established integrated circuit design and wafer fabrication facility in Australia, from its Philips semiconductor background up to 1997…”
Thick Film Hybrid Technology
The advantage of ceramic hybrids over fiberglass printed circuit is their high reliability due to their inherent rugged construction with the following advantages:
Hendon Semiconductors Pty. Ltd
ABN: 17 080 879 616, 1 Butler Drive, Hendon, South Australia 5014, Australia.
This is a Digital Panel Meter based on ICL7107. This was the workhorse Digital Readout chip before Low power uC designs were developed. Even now it is the easiest way an analog parameter can be displayed in an instrument.
Instrumentation and Measurement Circuits
3-1/2 Display is just enough resolution for recording process data or troubleshooting equipment. With 4-1/2 you notice the problems of thermoelectric EMF of probes and connectors. That is one reason gold plating is used another being low contact resistance. In 4 1/2 the reading can change due to contact resistance too, if the input impedance of the analog signal conditioning is low or the protection diodes, RC filter caps are leaky.
When you measure an analog parameter from a sensor; you attenuate or amplify it, to scale to the A/D converter range. You also need to protect or isolate the analog front end from high energy mis-connections, which will happen during field use. The operator should not get injured from any high energy leakage while measuring.
Resolution is the finest detail you can enumerate in a parameter or object. You can say the crowd was 3000 or 4000 people. Here 1000 is the resolution, finer data does not matter here. You would also hear things like, there were 80 to 90 boys in that classroom. 10 is the resolution there.
Accuracy is how precise a statement or number is. If there was 85 boys in that class, the above statement is accurate. If there was 65 boys, the measuring method or process needs calibration or examination.
In this circuit, the plastic caps should be of very low leakage. Multilayer plastic caps are good for instrumentation.