LM311 – Voltage Comparator

The LM111, LM211 and LM311 are voltage comparators that have input currents nearly a thousand times lower than devices like the LM106 or LM710. They are also designed to operate over a wider range of supply voltages: from standard ±15V op amp supplies down to the single 5V supply used for IC logic.

LM311 – Voltage Comparator

LM311 - Voltage Comparator

Both the inputs and the outputs of the LM111, LM211 or the LM311 can be isolated from system ground, and the output can drive loads referred to ground, the positive supply or the negative supply. Offset balancing and strobe capability are provided and outputs can be wire ORed.

  • Operates from single 5V supply
  • Input current: 150 nA max. over temperature
  • Offset current: 20 nA max. over temperature
  • Differential input voltage range: ±30V
  • Power consumption: 135 mW at ±15V

Related Resources –

Voltage Comparator Information And Circuits

This page provides basic information about voltage comparator integrated circuits and is to act as reference material for other circuits. The circuits shown are based on the LM339 Quad Voltage Comparator chip or the LM393 Dual Voltage Comparator chip. These devices are functionally the same. The LM311 Voltage Comparator can be used for these applications as well but it also has a number of unique features.

Comparators and Schmitt Triggers

An LM311 in a comparator circuit is shown at the right, with the pin numbers for the connections. The open-collector output is at pin 7, and the ground for this transistor is at pin 1. It is shown pulled up to the logic voltage of +5 with a 1k resistor, which is typical. The output of the LM311 can sink 8 mA. A comparator’s output is essentially binary, YES or NO.

Quad-Differential-Comparator-LM339-TI

These devices consist of four independent voltage comparators that are designed to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from dual supplies also is possible, as long as the difference between the two supplies is 2 V to 36 V, and VCC is at least 1.5 V more positive than the input common-mode voltage.

Quad General Purpose Differential Comparator – LM339

An application from an old TI datasheet showing the versatility of this comparator. For me it was a workhorse and like LM324 was used in many products.

Quad General Purpose Differential Comparator - LM339
Current drain is independent of the supply voltage. The outputs can be connected to other open-collector outputs to achieve wired-AND relationships.

Differential to TTL convertor using LM339

  • Single Supply or Dual Supplies
  • Wide Range of Supply Voltage:
  • Low Supply-Current Drain Independent of Supply Voltage… 0.8 mA Typ
  • Low Input Bias Current …25 nA Typ
  • Low Input Offset Voltage . . . 2 mV Typ
  • Common-Mode Input Voltage Range Includes Ground
  • Differential Input Voltage Range Equal to Maximum-Rated Supply Voltage . . . ±36 V
  • Low Output Saturation Voltage
  • Output Compatible With TTL, MOS, and CMOS

Basic Analog for Digital Designers

“There is a long gap between engineering college and mid career in a non-engineering position, but technology marches on so a simple method of keeping abreast with the latest developments is required. This application note starts with an overview of the basic laws of physics, progresses through circuits 1 and 2, and explains op amp operation through the use of feedback principles.”

Basic Analog for Digital Designers – Application Note

Basic Analog for Digital Designers

AN9510.2 October 19, 2004 – This is an Analog Reference for the Embedded Engineer. An Application Note from Intersil Tech Reference.

  1. Basic Physics Laws, Circuit Theorems and Analysis
  2. Ohm’s and Kirchoff’s Laws
  3. Voltage and Current Dividers
  4. Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems
  5. Networks in the Feedback Path
  6. Types of Opamp Configurations
  7. Video Amplifiers

Conclusion

Some algebra, the basic laws of physics, and the basic circuit laws are adequate to gain an understanding of op amp circuits. By applying these tools to various circuit configurations it is possible to predict performance. Further in-depth knowledge is required to do op amp design, and there are many sources where this knowledge can be obtained. Don’t hesitate to try some of these tricks on your local circuit design engineer, but be aware that it may result in a long lecture about circuit design.

ICL7107 DPM and DVM chip from Intersil

ICL7107 DPM and DVM chip from Intersil

The Intersil ICL7106 and ICL7107 are high performance, low power, 31/2 digit A/D converters. Included are seven segment decoders, display drivers, a reference, and a clock. The ICL7106 is designed to interface with a liquid crystal display (LCD) and includes a multiplexed backplane drive; the ICL7107 will directly drive an instrument size light emitting diode (LED) display.

3-1/2 digital display for +/- 199.9mV

DPM ICL7107 Digital Panel Meter

  • Guaranteed Zero Reading for 0V Input on All Scales
  • True Polarity at Zero for Precise Null Detection
  • 1pA Typical Input Current
  • True Differential Input and Reference, Direct Display Drive
  • LCD ICL7106, LED lCL7107
  • Low Power Dissipation – Typically Less Than 10mW

Ananth –

3-1/2 Digit DPM ICL7107 Digital Panel Meter

This is one of the first mixed CMOS IC, I used it after studying Intersil CMOS Hot Ideas Book. It is also the most widely used Display chip. Many Millions of Instruments are built using this chip both in Instrumentation and Industrial Automation. The ICL7106 was most popular in Hand Held DMM’s and Clamp Meters as it used to drive a LCD Display. ICL7109 was to interface with Digital Comparators and Microprocessors

ICL7109 12-Bit A/D Converter with 3-State Binary Outputs

DRS4 Evaluation Board – Paul Scherrer Institut

Ever wanted to develop a Professional High Speed DAQ or a Storage Oscilloscope or even a High Speed Communications grade Logic Analyzer. Here is a front end Analog Mixed Chip with Eval Board.

You could make a High Speed Test Instrument and probably build a tablet app front end. How would a 200 M Hz Oscilloscope look on you 10 inch tablet. You will float in the clouds. – delabs

The DRS chip is a full custom Integrated Circuit developed at PSI, Switzerland. It contains a switched capacitor array (SCA) with 1024 cells, capable of digitizing eight analog signals with high speed (6 GSPS) and high accuracy (11.5 bit SNR) on a single chip.

DRS4 Evaluation Board - Paul Scherrer Institut
DRS4 Evaluation Board – Paul Scherrer Institut

By using channel cascading, we can configure this board with 2048 bins for each channel at the expense of a lower analog bandwidth of about 500 MHz. The on-board comparators enables the board to do a self-triggering on a programmed level of any of the input channels or logical combination of channels, much like an oscilloscope.

Highlights of Board with One DRS4 chip

  • Four 50-Ohm terminated input channels with SMA connectors
  • Active input buffers which result in an analog bandwidth of 700 MHz (-3dB).
  • One AD9245 ADC to digitize signals from the DRS4 chip
  • One Xilinx Spartan 3 FPGA for readout control
  • A 16-bit DAC to generate all on-board control voltages
  • A serial EEPROM containing serial number and calibration information
  • Internal trigger with user-defined thresholds on any of the four channes.

Maxim Integrated – Analog Integration

They make unique and affordable semiconductor solutions in the areas or Analog and Mixed-signal. The digital and analog interface ICs are useful products in maxim for automotive and industrial product engineering.

Maxim Integrated – Analog Integration

They have Embedded Systems and Optical Communications in their Portfolio. They are well known for Power and Battery Management chips.

Some of products are – 1-Wire and iButton designs, Amplifiers, Analog Switches and Multiplexers, Clock Generation and Distribution, Data Converters, Design Services and Analog IP Blocks, Digital Potentiometers, Embedded Security, Energy-Measurement and Metering SoCs and more.

Novato smart sensor transmitter. – 4-20mA Loop-Powered Temperature Sensor with HART

The Novato reference design is a 16-bit, high-accuracy, loop-powered temperature transducer that transmits temperature information from a remote object to the central control unit over a 4-20mA current loop and using the highway addressable remote transducer (HART) communication protocol.

 Novato smart sensor transmitter.

HART Communication Protocol

The Novato reference design fully satisfies the HART physical layer requirements. The HART functions set is developed by AB Tech Solution, an engineering firm specialized in product development services for industrial automation applications.

Established in 1983, Maxim Integrated Products is a worldwide leader in design, development, and manufacture of linear and mixed-signal integrated circuits (ICs).

Maxim circuits “connect” the real world and digital world by detecting, measuring, amplifying, and converting real-world signals, such as temperature, pressure, or sound, into the digital signals necessary for computer processing.

Maxim Integrated
160, Rio Robles, San Jose, CA 95134 USA.

Infineon Technologies – Advanced Semiconductors

They have chip and system solutions for automotive and industrial electronics. They also specialized semiconductor IC for chip card and security applications.

Infineon Technologies – Advanced Semiconductors

Industrial, Lighting, Wireless Communications are other areas. The Industrial Power Control (IPC) Division have solutions for electrical drives and energy generation components in solar or wind power plants.

Products Include Consumer Electronic ICs, Fiber Optics, Microcontrollers, Power Semiconductors for Automotive, Power Semiconductors, Chip Card + Security ICs, Trusted Computing, Sensors, Small Signal Discretes.

Infineon XMC4500 ARM Cortex-M4F Demo

The modular design kit for the XMC4500 series. Up to three additional application boards – for actuators and sensors (top), for human-machine interface (HMI) functions (right), and for communication with other systems (left) – can be connected to the basic design board with XMC4500 (middle), depending on the respective application requirements.

Infineon XMC4500 ARM Cortex-M4F Demo

This page documents a demo application that uses the FreeRTOS GCC ARM Cortex-M4F port. It targets the Infineon XMC4000 Hexagon Development Kit CPU board, which is populated with an XMC4500 microcontroller.

Infineon Technologies – Wikipedia

Infineon Technologies was founded in April 1999 when the semiconductor operations of parent company, Siemens AG, were spun off to form a separate entity.

Infineon Technologies
Am Campeon 1-12 Neubiberg, München, 85579, Germany.