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ADS7816 – 12-Bit High Speed Sampling AD

The ADS7816 is a 12-bit, 200kHz sampling analog to- digital converter. It features low power operation with automatic power down, a synchronous serial interface, and a differential input. The reference voltage can be varied from 100mV to 5V, with a corresponding resolution from 24mV to 1.22mV. – From TI Applications

ADS7816  – 12-Bit High Speed A/D Converter

Low power, automatic power down, and small size make the ADS7816 ideal for battery operated systems or for systems where a large number of signals must be acquired simultaneously. It is also ideal for remote and/or isolated data acquisition.

ADS7816 - 12-Bit High Speed Sampling AD

12-Bit High Speed Micro Power Sampling Analog-to-Digital converter

The ADS7816 is a classic successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. The architecture is based on capacitive redistribution which inherently includes a sample/hold function.

The converter is fabricated on a 0.6µ CMOS process. The architecture and process allow the ADS7816 to acquire and convert an analog signal at up to 200,000 conversions per second while consuming very little power

MOSIS – Affordable Integrated Circuits Fabrication

MOSIS Is An Multi-Project Wafer (MPW) Integrated Circuit (IC) Fabrication Service Provider.

MOSIS – Affordable Integrated Circuits Fabrication

“MOSIS is operated by the Information Sciences Institute at the University of Southern California (USC). MOSIS merges multiple IC designs submitted by both companies and universities onto multi-project wafers (MPW) to share the cost of fabrication among multiple users.”

MOSIS - Affordable Integrated Circuits Fabrication

MOSIS – Metal Oxide Semiconductor Implementation Service

MOSIS keeps the cost of fabricating    prototype quantities low by aggregating multiple designs onto one mask set. This allows customers to share overhead costs associated with mask making, wafer fabrication, and assembly.

MOSIS Design Reference

A variety of design flows (digital, analog, mixed-signal) can be used with a number of different CAD tools, technology files, design kits, libraries and IP to create designs for processes accessed by MOSIS.

MOSIS Integrated Circuit Fabrication Service
USC Information Sciences Institute, 4676 Admiralty Way, 7th floor
Marina del Rey, CA 90292-6695, USA

HyperPhysics – Educational Resource Physics Electronics

HyperPhysics is an exploration environment for concepts in physics which employs concept maps and other linking strategies to facilitate smooth navigation. For the most part, it is laid out in small segments or “cards”, true to its original development in HyperCard. The entire environment is interconnected with thousands of links, reminiscent of a neural network..

Electronics Concepts at HyperPhysics

Students should go thru this website from cover-to-cover, It is a work of knowledge that is priceless

Ampere Law at HyperPhysics

Ampere’s Law at HyperPhysics

“Ampere’s Law states that for any closed loop path, the sum of the length elements times the magnetic field in the direction of the length element is equal to the permeability times the electric current enclosed in the loop.”

Materials and Inventory Management

The Inventory of a Firm should be Open within an Organization. Searching with a browser, Integrateable with departmental webware/intranet. With a very easy readable non-programmer friendly API.

Components Parts Kits and Materials

The Search must be based on Multiple Keywords, Filters or Tags. Dormant Inventory and Parts/Equipment/Furniture not on any live project anymore, Excess Inventory and Obsoleted Parts due to Tech Advancement; should be flagged. This enables other departments to use it, consume it for Maintenance or Research projects or integrate into new designs if not-obsolete.

electronic components

If found to be valueless, damaged or worn-out by all departments and responsible engineers, then inventory should be sold or given away. The Employees can be the first customers for an inhouse Corporate Garage Sale. An un-organized, complexly-computerized and non-transparent/blocked Stores will end up in a Flea Market.

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Designing Mixed Analog Chips and Circuits

These are some updates on Analog and Mixed Design pages online. A/D Converters are important because the world is full of mainly analog signals and parameters. Processing, Filtering, Analyzing and Computing data is best done by software (firmware).

These days the term of firmware can only be used for very small devices. This is because we have more memory, flash and computation ability in tiny footprints. So even a mini gadget can have a Tiny OS sometimes even a Virtual Machine. What is a VM it is is a OS in a OS. Java, .Net.

Time-interleaved Analog-to-digital Converters

Time-interleaved Analog-to-digital Converters

TIADCs and TI-ADCs an Article by Dr. Christian Vogel.
“The idea of a time-interleaved ADC (TIADC) is to use a system of M parallel channels, which alternately take one sample (time-interleaved sampling). Thereby, the sampling frequency of one channel does not need to fulfill the Nyquist criterion; however, when in the digital domain all samples are merged into one output sequence the overall sampling frequency fulfills the Nyquist criterion”

The Designer’s Guide Community – A Guide to Simulation & Modeling for Analog & RF Circuit Designers

A Site where analog, mixed-signal and RF circuit designers come to learn about simulation, modeling and design. There are a number of very practical papers on simulation and modeling on the Analysis, Modeling, and Theory pages. A collection of useful example models can be found on the Verilog-AMS page.

Designing Analog Chips by Hans Camenzind

Hans Camenzind book on Analog CMOS design is a good reference for students and covers Power Electronic concepts like Switching Regulators and Low Drop-Out Regulators. The Delta-Sigma Converter A/D and Zero-Crossing Detectors on Mixed Design. Communications circuits like Timers and Oscillators . Phase-Locked Loops and Filters too.

Water Level Controller with Reed Sensor

This is a way by which you can monitor the level of fluids like water in a tank. Based on data from the sensor you can control things like solenoids or motors as required or even turn on a buzzer, hooter or annunciator in a control panel. A simple Water Level Controller.


Look at the picture on the right, the float can be a Styrofoam type with a couple of ceramic magnets stuck inside. The float must move freely up and down a long plastic pipe of around 10 mm dia. If the fluid is not water but a solvent then design a non-soluble float or coat the float you made with something like an epoxy resin.

Water Level Controller

Then you need to assemble a small circuit within the long plastic pipe. Many reed relays with a chain of resistors in series has to be inserted in the pipe. The resistor and the glass reed relays should be in different levels of the pipe where you need an alarm or indication. Seal the pipe hermetically at both ends with epoxy resin after taking out a shielded cable of just 2 wires + 1 ground shield.

When the fluid level changes, the float moves up or down with it, when the float moves over a section of pipe where the reed relay is mounted, the magnets on the float make the reed operate and the resistance of the sensor changes.

The resistance is measured and the alarm can be operated as you like. The advantage of this arrangement is the electric circuit does not come in contact with the fluid, no sparking risk.

Reed Relay. It was invented by Dr. W. B. Ellwood at Bell Labs in 1936. Contacts are in a sealed glass tube filled with inert gas like in a bulb, so they do not corrode. It is faster than regular relays and as no spring is used it has a longer mechanical life. The two contacts are ferromagnetic blades plated with rhodium. When you take a magnet close by, the contacts touch each other. You can also put the reed in a coil, then when you energize the coil the reed operates. Used in telecommunication.OKI is one manufacturer of this type of component.

Design and Caution.

When you drive inductive loads you have to use RC snubbers, freewheeling diodes, varistors or zeners. when you drive lamps the cold current is high so use thermistors. The Reed relay is best used in telecom and instrumentation and avoided in power electronics. It can handle high RF frequency as the path of current is straight and footprint small.

Here is a Circuit to Build and Learn this Concepts – This can help make a Water level controller from sump to overhead tank. This can also be used in industrial fluid level control like oils and thick fluids. It may not work with highly viscous fluids or sticky mixes.

Fluid or Water Level with Reed Relays

“When you use the DMM or digital multimeter, try not to use it for high voltages and currents, use external shunts and attenuators instead. If you try to measure 230V AC in the Ohms mode or in the Current mode with the probe in the current socket then you will see fumes in your DMM and a hole in your pocket !!”

– Solderman Talks 1702