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SCADA – Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

A Closed loop control system has a Sensor-Controller-Actuator. The Bimetal Thermostat has all the three in the Bimetal itself. The Sensor, the Relay Contact and the Intelligence. This is Process Control when implemented to control the temperature in a Bakery Oven.

This leads us to Sensors-Transmitter-Controller-Outputs-Actuators. Where each is an independent electronic/electrical component of an entire Process Control system. The Process could be Temperature, Pressure, Speed, or Level.

Industrial Automation encompasses many such Process Control Systems to form a Engineered System Solution for an Entire production line with different stages and process types.Visual SCADA

At the machine end, the control has to be real time and highly reliable, dedicated controllers both Analog and Microcontrollers based are used. Analog as a fallback/override/trip or backup controller in case Embedded system gets stuck/fails.

These controllers or transmitters also send the data of the process back to a center control panel room. The actuators and outputs also have an override from the control panel. Sometimes Intelligent controllers at machine end can be remotely tweaked/tuned by Control room. This is possible due to Embedded systems and Flash., It also can pose problems if misused. Using SCADA such networking of these process control systems and Monitoring, Tweaking, Data Collection and Analysis is possible.

Come Internet or Web and Wireless, the scenario changes entirely. The Control room stays where it is, the Tablets can Access and utilize the SCADA and entire plant at the machine end also. The Control room can be carried around with limited access. This evolves further to that extent that an expert engineer can check the status of the Product Line from any Web Browser and suggest remedial actions to the others at the factory. He can even see the status on mobile devices. Now study the Resources below.

Red Lion Controls – HMI and Process Control – HMI operator interface panels for PLCs, motor drives.

Sielco Sistemi – Winlog Pro is a SCADA/HMI software package – TCP/IP Client Server support, Intranet/Internet architecture.

See Some Industrial Grade SCADA Solutions here

Learn about SCADA by trying out these –

wSCADA – Internet SCADA – Office Factory Integration – Online Automation

Industrial Process parameters, production flow or work status, material offtake, processing of products, incoming inspection status and quality process monitoring. All these need to be interfaced with the ERP and access to Mobile devices like Smartphones and remote Computers provided. This helps smooth micro management of a industry. Some Interfaces may have supervisory control and others just graphs and progress charts. Depending on the person and his work or machine area.

The data and presentation of complex data (by graphs and charts) enhances analysis and timely decision making. Then these solutions will be productive, and be an asset to an existing system. To ensure that; software or webware developers have to be supported by the domain experts having decades of hands on experience on the shop floor. Else; if it is built on theory and some statistics, the result may appear good and work well for small or standard configurations, but in demanding, changing, real life scenario, it may fail to deliver the best.

WebSCADA – Automation Systems – Process Control, Historian, Event Alarm. WebSCADA provides automation platforms on the Internet.

SCADA software for industrial control systems – WebAccess supplies communications drivers that enable personal computers to communicate with automation hardware.

NetBiter – Monitoring and control through web pages – Monitor and control over the Ethernet using web pages.

Piezoelectric Energy Harvester – V20w

Converts normally wasted mechanical energy in the form of vibrations into usable electrical energy. It uses the piezoelectric effect to generate energy from Vibrations.

Piezoelectric Energy Harvester - V20w

Piezoelectric Energy Harvester – V20w

Some sources are Machinery in Oil and Gas drilling to refining. Machines in Industry and Manufacturing. Wind, Tide, streams also can be harnesses with small fixtures, jigs or devices for vibration sensor arrays.

Applications – Wireless Sensors and small instruments need a way to recharge their lithium cells or even supercaps. Using solar and vibration harvesting, enough power can be derived to power efficient electronics. Recharge small computers and tablets.

From – Mide Technology

They are specialists in smart engineering materials technology. They create state-of-the-art solutions to uncommon engineering challenges. They are also a Engineering Service and design, develop, and test a turn-key custom prototypes.

Complete Distributed Process Control System

Training Demo jig panel set that uses the DCS process management package, DeltaV of Emerson.

Complete Distributed Process Control System

Process Control : Educational Equipment

Here you can see a scaled down version of the real thing, these are ways Paper, Oil and some Materials are processed in Big Factories. Study the control of processes like Level, Flow, Temperature, Pressure and the needed Actuators used to monitor and manage a stable multi-loop system.

Process Automation is needed to ensure quality of the output and safety of plant and environment. The most important thing is to make it energy efficient.

Energy and Power Measurements

To make an analog design using log amps or multipliers, discovercircuits – four-quad is good for learning. Using a uP for math is better. Look at these links below. Build a Power Meter ! The Metrics for Going Green is with a Energy/Power/Watt meter.

enerjar - diy power meter

Related Reading

5 Watt LED driver with Zetex – Diodes

LED Drive Solutions and Power Supply Design ideas. Robust and efficient high-brightness LED drivers. Zetex have LED drivers for boost/buck they are cost effective too,

Zetex range of LED drivers – Diodes Incorporated

Shown below is a design from an Application Note of Zetex. Here ZXSC400 drives a Luxeon V Star LED. The input voltage ranges from 4.2V to 5.4 V with a maximum output current of 700mA at 5V input.

ZXSC400 - LED driver boost converter

ZXSC400 – LED driver boost converter

Voltage mode boost converter in the SOT23-6 package. Its low feedback voltage allows the current in a chain of LEDs to be set and accurately monitored with a single resistor giving minimal losses. Excellent load and line regulation.

1.8V to 8V supply range, regulation of ±1%, 80% efficiency, 4.5µA Quiescent drain.

White LED Drive Circuits – Maxim

Here you can understand how to drive white LED’ s for flashlight or Internal lamp. I have tried substituting for tubelights and bulbs. These LED’s are amazing. The amount of light at even 100mW is phenomenal. The future is indeed LED Lights. But more Amber component is required in LED to give the warm feeling of an Edison Lamp.

Why Drive White LEDs with Constant Current? – Maxim

The MAX1561/MAX1599 include an internal, high-voltage, low-RDS(ON) N-channel MOSFET switch for high efficiency and maximum battery life. A single DualMode input provides a simple means of brightness adjustment and on/off control.

Fast 1MHz (500kHz for the MAX1599) current-mode, pulse-width modulated (PWM) operation allows for small input and output capacitors and a small inductor while minimizing ripple on the input supply/battery. Programmable soft-start eliminates inrush current during startup.

Some Features –

  • Accurate Current Regulation for Uniform Illumination
  • High Efficiency Up to 87%
  • 2.6V to 5.5V Input Range
  • 0.3µA Shutdown Current
  • 26V (max) Output with Overvoltage Protection
  • Up to 900mW Output Power with Internal 30V MOSFET Switch

High-Efficiency, 26V Step-Up Converters for Two to Six White LEDs

Drives LEDs with a regulated output voltage or current (up to 120mA) from an unregulated input supply (2.7V to 5.3V). These are complete DC-DC converters requiring only four small ceramic capacitors and no inductors. 200mV Current-Sense Threshold Reduces Power Loss

1.5x/2x High-Efficiency White LED Charge Pumps

Some Features

  • High-Efficiency 1.5x/2x Charge Pumps
  • Low Input Ripple with 750kHz Operation
  • Up to 120mA Output Current
  • 1µA Shutdown Current

Read More Here – White LED Drive Maxim at EEM

MAX1169 ADC and PIC Microcontroller

What is the use of a Robot, which cannot perceive its environment in detail. Where can a Control system be effective, if it does not get a “feedback” about its actions. How could one do Analysis and Research or Verify, when he cannot Measure a parameter with good accuracy and resolution.

ADC are the Eyes and Ears for a uC, this brings the Real world as Numbers within the CPU. Without ADC a uC is like a Frog in the Well and has to create an Imaginary World for himself. That is beyond the scope of Engineering.

Bring your favorite PIC Microcontroller to his senses. Give him an ability to Perceive the Reality around him. Get him an Analog to Digital Converter and don’t forget to code.

MAX1169 ADC and PIC Microcontroller.

MAX1169 ADC is better than 4 1/2 Digit Value. For me the Intersil chip is a Benchmark. Beyond 5 1/2 Resolution may be needed only for Scientific Research.

I would add, 2 1/2 is like Analog Meters/Bar Graphs, 3 1/2 for Control systems, 4 1/2 for T&M and beyond 5 1/2 is for R&D.

Interfacing the MAX1169 ADC to a PIC Microcontroller – Maxim