Process Control (Page 10)

Industrial Automation and Process Control.

Wet bulb and Dry bulb Digital Humidity Meters or Hygrometers are accompanied with a chart for evaluating % RH. This chart is in PDF format below.

Table of Relative Humidity or RH 370 Kb PDF

The Sensors that could be used are Two RTD PT-100 and Two 48*96 Digital Indicators. The Wet bulb had a Moist Wick Compartment where water has to be refilled periodically.

Here are some Traditional Hygrometers. Even today these are used and work very well. Humidity and Temperature control is also important for HVAC –┬áHeating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC).

Relative Humidity Table for Hygrometer

When Weaving Textiles, Humidifiers or Atomizers are used to maintain the Humidity of the Work Area where the Looms are running. A Horse Hair Hygrometer is used to Manually Monitor and Regulate the Humidity. In Offices where the Air Conditioning needs a Humidity regulation the method used to Determine Humidity is by using a Wet and Dry Bulb Hygrometer or a Sling Psychrometer. Human and Animal Health is also sensitive to these parameters.

Related Resources –

Fluke test tools, answering your electronic, electrical, predictive maintenance and biomedical needs.

Fluke – Education and Training

  • Intrinsically Safe Application Notes
  • Insulation Testers
  • Standards and References
  • Fluke Technical Papers
  • Earthground

Fluke Biomedical Instruments and Equipment

Shown below is ESA620 an Electrical Safety Analyzer that performs all primary safety tests, including mains voltage, protective earth resistance, insulation resistance, device current, earth, chassis, and patient leakages…..

Fluke Biomedical Instruments and Equipment

Louis Desloge Sr. founds Watlow Electric Manufacturing Company in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, to manufacture electric heating elements for the shoe industry. 1922

Watlow Sensors, Processing and Heaters

‘Watlow designs and manufactures industrial heaters, sensors and controllers – all of the components of a thermal system.”

The SERIES F4 1?4 DIN industrial ramping temperature controller meets the requirements of the most demanding ramp soak controller processing applications.

SERIES F4 Ramping Controller

This ramping temperature controller features a four line, high-definition LCD interface display for quick and easy profile programming and controller configuration.

SERIES F4 Ramping Controller

Watlow reference data provides information for amperage conversions, thermocouple types, RTD tolerances and more.

Watlow Ltd- Reference – Guides and Tutorials

Watlow is the leader in engineering and manufacturing custom commercial electric heaters. … offer electric heating elements, industrial heaters…

Here is a Page from an Old Watlow Catalog i have.

From Electronic Catalogs

This is an Application note i used to give with my controllers – app009.pdf – Ananth

Temperature Control in Plastic Injection Molding.

Temperature Control

Terms in Process Control and Explanation.

There are three Controls to be Adjusted to make a Proportional temperature Controller Perform Properly. This method has to be practiced and experience gained from it can be used to get very good and stable Control of the temperature or other process parameters.

1. Set Point. (SP)

This is the Temperature at which you require the Heated area to be. Here we have to remember it is better to control the temperature of the metallic area closest to heater to avoid thermal Cushions. In Rubber and Plastic Molding if you are measuring the plastic temperature directly it may give rise to oscillations and proper control may not be possible.

In Controlling the Temperature of Air or Water (Bad Conductors of Heat) Forced Convection with Fans for Air or Stirrers for Liquids can be used when Sensing temperature of the Liquid or air directly. But in Plastic such things cant be done as it is a semi-solid when heated hence. Control of Temperature of the Metal Discharging Heat to the Plastic is most practical. Oscillations are inevitable if the sensor is away from heater or is in contact with a non-conductor of heat. Temperature Control Curve

2. Process Value. (PV)

This is the Temperature at the Tip of the sensor or the material touching the tip of the sensor. In Non-Conductors of Heat like plastic if we are monitoring plastic at a certain point the temperature of the plastic will be very different at various points depending on the Distance of the Heater from that point due to thermal gradients.

3. Proportional Band or Dead band. (PB) –

Dead band or H % or Hysteresis are terms used in on / off Controllers in proportional controller we use the term proportional band.

The Temperature zone in which the Controller turns on or off The heaters in a time proportional manner is the proportional Band. Set Point 200 deg C It is Given in % e.g. 10% PB of 200 deg SP is 20 deg. the Heaters are on till 190 deg C and off above 210 deg. C. Between 190 to 210 is the PB. A little above 190 the Heaters are on for 90% time. A little below 210 Deg C the Heaters are on for 10% of the time. When SP=PV Process Value the Heaters are on for 50% of the time i.e. 50% Duty Cycle.

4. Cycle Time –

This is the repetitive rate at which the heaters are Turned on or off Room Temperature 26 deg C For a Cycle time of 12 Seconds, when PV=SP heaters are on for 5 seconds and off for 5 seconds and this goes on as long as PV=SP.

Tuning or Adjusting a Proportional Temperature Controller.

Step # 1 –

Ensure Sensor is properly connected to the Temperature Controller TC polarity reversal will show reducing reading in the Display as heat builds up. The Heaters used and wattage selected must be able to bring the temperature more than the maximum required control temperature with TC. If Supply Voltage is down or heaters are blown or not in contact TC can not solve the problem.

So when in doubt connect heaters directly to supply (without TC) and see observe maximum temperature e. g. if max. temp. is 500 deg C the TC can control temperature upto 480 deg C.

Step # 2

Keep PB in minimum position and power on system e. g. set temperature is 300 deg C. Now Observe maximum overshoot. and adjust proportional band as in table below.

SP 300 deg C

PV (Process Value or Measured Temperature)

PV overshoot Proportional Band
10 % 330 deg C or more Near Maximum fully clockwise till end.
5 % 315 deg C to 360 deg C Middle of the PB Control or towards max.
2% 306 deg C Little above present setting.
Less than 300 deg Droop e. g. 290 PB is Critically set Do not Change.

After each change turn on system again to see response till 2 % or less variation or overshoot or oscillations are obtained.

Thumb Rule ! –

  • Increment PB to Decrease Overshoot.
  • Increment PB to Decrease Oscillations.
  • Stop adjustment when PV droops < SP
  • Adjust EC to match SP = PV after PV is stable at a point less than SP.

Step # 3

There is an additional control called Error Cal EC ( manual reset or Integral) which is factory set for SP=PV 50% duty cycle. In certain cases after stable reading is obtained after adjusting or tuning PB the temperature may stabilize say at 290 deg for a set point of 300 deg the process is stable but a ten degrees process error is present. this can be compensated in two ways.

a. Increase setpoint to 310 deg the process settles at 300 deg but this may not satisfactory even if it is practical.
b. Adjust Error Cal provided in the back panel to increase temperature to 300 deg from 290 deg.

When this is done give some time for system to respond after every 1/2 a turn 180 deg of the control. the EC control is a Ten turn potentiometer like the SP potentiometer after 10 turns the direction of turning must change. Clockwise Increase temperature Anticlockwise decrease temperature. (at min. PB setting EC pot sets the On/Off Operating Point).

Temperature Control using SSR and STC1000PK.

SSR Heat Control

Mains Circuit –

Always Connect Phase to Live “L “, This Can Be “R” in a RYB System 3 Phase . “L” Live Can Be Verified by a “Neon Tester” . and it is the Energy Line (Tester Glows). “N” Neutral is the Energy return line and will be close to Earth Potential in a Neon tester it will not show a Glow. Earth “E” is the Local Earth at the site of the installation. ( “N” to “E” AC Voltage should be less than 5 Volts ideally)

SSR or Solid State Relay or Electronic Relay –

Generally this is a Thyristor Based Normally Open 230V Switch that can be turned on/off at a fast rate.

  • No moving parts hence no wear and tear.
  • Dissipates Heat when in On Condition.
  • Use adequate Heat Sink or SSR will fail.
  • Input to Output is optically isolated. very tight and crimped.
  • The one used here is DC Control AC 230V 15A Load SSR.

Components and Points –

  • Connect Power From Lighting (5 A) for Controller.
  • 1 Phase 230V Supply With Earth
  • Stainless Steel Braided (SSB) Sensor “K” Type ( SSB is Earthed )
  • Heater 1 kW and 15 Amps SSR

Fuse Rating of a HRC Fuse

High Rupture Capacity (HRC) Fuse is Safe and Reliable. 10KW Heater at 230V is 10,000 / 230 in Amps of Fuse Rating. i.e. Watts = Volts x Amps hence use
50 Amps Fuse.

Relay Terminology –

  • C Common is connected to NC when Relay is off.
  • NO Normally Open is Disconnected when Relay off. (connected to C when Relay on).
  • NC Normally Closed is Connected to C when Relay off. (disconnected when relay on).

Relay outputs are Potential Free or Floating or at High Impedance.

Note – The Terminations of High Current Lines going to Heater must be very tight and crimped. Loose contacts will Spark and cause Fire.

This is part of an user manual i used to give for cooling controllers – app007.pdf

The Logic of cooling in temperature control is inverted, Activating the relay powers a compressor which cools the system. A small modification at the output stage, makes any heating controller into a cooling controller. It can also be done with external relay logic, but make sure on power failure (control power line) the compressor ( 3 ph power) shuts down. In all heating and cooling control, when a broken or disconnected sensor is detected, the controller should turn off all outputs and indicate a fault condition.

Cooling Controller

Before you use a Controller to Cool a Chamber to Say +5 Deg C.

First :

Do not Connect the Controller. Directly Connect the Cooling Device e. g. : Compressor. to the system and check the maximum cooling it can produce. In case temperature goes to 0 deg or -10 deg then by using a STC1000 you can control at +5 deg.

But if directly you get cooling of only upto +10 deg then it is impossible for any controller to produce extra cooling, in such a case as this use a better compressor or more insulation.

Second :

Connect Sensor properly and replace when broken keep sensor close to the source of cooling.

Third :

Deadband (DB) at minimum is 1 Deg this is the best setting, maximum setting of deadband may increase compressor life and also save power but will produce a huge variation in temperature.

Fourth :

If large Variation of temperature is present and you need accurate control Reduce deadband to min.

Unit is factory set db at 1 deg, remove seal tape before dead band adjustment.

These are documents and circuits which will help learn Basic Temperature closed loop control, There are many ways to control temperature.

  • ON-OFF Hysteresis or Dead Band Control.
  • Proportional Control with Reset.
  • Full PID Control, Manual and Auto Tune.

The first one is an electronic emulation of Thermostat or Electro-Mechanical Controls. The second is a Time-Proportional like a slow PWM. The third is the complete adaptive control.

While the first is like a limit switch, the second works like a SMPS, the third PID takes into account the speed of the process and dynamic changes or disturbances of the system and compensates in real time.

Example – In a Oven, one batch may have 100 metal boxes to heat, the second batch may have 10 boxes, the door may be frequently opened and the mains power (heater) may be fluctuating. A system that is able to adapt to these changes, without much readjustments is the objective of an ideal process control. The Accuracy and the Energy efficiency being the most important.

Process control Application notes

  • Temperature control in plastic injection molding
  • Cooling Temperature Control
  • Capacitor Temperature Monitor

Documents