Basic Electronics

basic electronics, tutorials.

Many may already know about these EE Educational pages with Circuits of J. B. Calvert.  These pages are valuable as they are like a summation of Important and Practical Sections in many EE Subjects. If you want to master the basics of EE, these pages will propel you in the right direction.A Welath of Information is at the site РDr James B. Calvert Associate Professor Emeritus of Engineering, University of Denver and Registered Professional Engineer, State of Colorado. An EE-Encyclopedia Almost.

Engineering and Technology – James B. Calvert
“An extensive series of pages based on experiments that can be done in the personal or home laboratory. The emphasis is on enjoyment and intellectual pleasure, but there is much practical matter as well.”

Electronics Index – Includes vacuum tubes and cathode-ray tubes, with many experiments for the home laboratory. Nixie clocks too.

The Electronics Index of J. B. Calvert

The Atmel AVR microprocessors are very similar functionally to the PIC microprocessors, with the same range in size from 8-bit, 8-pin PDIP to 32-bit processors with 100 pins, and similar features.
Atmel AVR 8-Bit Microcontrollers

The ATtiny13A will operate from a supply voltage as low as 1.8V (maximum clock speed 4 Mhz), and with a full 20 MHz clock speed at 4.5V and above. The current drain is much reduced at the lower supply voltages and clock frequencies.

A Magnetometer
It is easy to measure moderate magnetic fields using a Hall sensor, such as the Allegro A1302 linear Hall sensor, available from Jameco. A PIC12F675 can digitize the output of the sensor and display it on a serial LCD display, such as the Newhaven NHD-0216K3Z-FL-GBW 2 line x 16 digit display. This system is shown breadboarded in the figure at the right, measuring the field between the poles of a horseshoe magnet.

HyperPhysics is an exploration environment for concepts in physics which employs concept maps and other linking strategies to facilitate smooth navigation. For the most part, it is laid out in small segments or “cards”, true to its original development in HyperCard. The entire environment is interconnected with thousands of links, reminiscent of a neural network..

Electronics Concepts at HyperPhysics

Students should go thru this website from cover-to-cover, It is a work of knowledge that is priceless

Ampere Law at HyperPhysics

Ampere’s Law at¬†HyperPhysics

“Ampere’s Law states that for any closed loop path, the sum of the length elements times the magnetic field in the direction of the length element is equal to the permeability times the electric current enclosed in the loop.”

This is a demo of the popular 555 timer. you can try out the project on this page by a javascript simulation.Press the Red button below to turn on the circuit press it again to turn off. The 555 can source (LED2) or Sink (LED1) upto 200mA.

Screenshot of Astable 555 Timer Flasher

It can even drive a small motor or lamp with diodes added to protect from inductive kickback.Vary Ra, Rb and Ct with the controls given and see the change of frequency, period and duty cycle.

Screenshot

Astable Multivibrator with 555

Astable Multivibrator with 555

This is a tutorial with calculator to help learn the application of 555 which is a very rare chip innovation. It is simple, versatile, flexible and programmable (by tweaking of pots).

The Gate is a digital component that is used to compute an output for certain inputs, the inputs and outputs have two states high-1 and low- 0. Let us assume high is 5V and low is 0V (like in CMOS). On a high level the LED will light up and on a low level the LED is off. Now let us see what Logic means.

Learn Digital Logic Gates Operation

Th pages listed belwow requires images and javascript to be enabled to try out the demos of the gates.

 

Digital Logic Gates

Gates are what make many of ICs, the two popular families are the 40xx CMOS and the 74xx TTL . Now 40xx come in 74HCT40xx flavors which approach the quality of an ideal gate. Entire circuits with Gates can also be also be burnt into PLDs, FPGAs and CPLDs just like you burn your CDROM. Gates can also be implemented in assembly language which a microcontroller like 8051 will understand and execute.

Hardware gate circuit will operate in real time, nano seconds delay will be there due to propagation delay, gate capacitance and FET switching times etc. Software or microcontroller gates code working will depend on both propagation delay and the CPU clock speed.

Gates can be combined to make combinational or sequential logic circuits. combinational circuits are a complex network of gates interconnected to evaluate a pattern of output for patterns of input. Sequential circuits use memory elements hence output patterns depend both on input patterns and the memory of history of events. An example of combinational logic circuit is a seven segment display decoder CD4511 and and example for a sequential logic circuit is CD4029 up-down counter.

The CD40xx CMOS family can work at even 3V-9V-12V DC and consume low power. The speed is not as fast as 74xx TTL family. It is good for simple portable battery powered circuits. The 74HCTxx series is good for low power and high speed but will work at 5V. When you have problems interfacing CMOS and TTL use 74HCTxx family.