I will just explain part of this circuit. D9 and D10 provide a low cost -1.4 from -5 V. This is needed to reach near 0.00 for LM317 Min. setting. An LED also can be used with proper bias. Note that there is a Temperature Coefficient in ppm, but it may not matter upto 8 bits accuracy.
TIP2955, TIP3055 (NPN), TIP2955 (PNP) Complementary Silicon Power Transistors. It is a Darlington, that means good current gain. When current in R1 10E goes more than 50mA a voltage of 50mA X 10E = 500mV is applied across Emmiter-Base junction. So lower than 500mV no bias the tap is turned off, 500mV-700mV the tap starts turning on depending on type of transistor.
Power Supplies Section
The transistor is like a water Tap. So TIP2955 carries the major current burden thru the load allowing LM317 to do the decision making when to turn-on or off. It is analog control, it is not On-Off but linear-proportional. The LM317 is very cool as the burden is passed off to TIP2955 who will need a heatsink to keep going and deliver the power you want.
Put the filter caps appropriately. The Hum-Noise will be filtered. The cap after the regulator should be a small guy. The main filter cap after the Bridge can be as big as your cabinet or budget.
Mains Voltage Power Transformers
If you build it and wire it without designing a PCB, then make all wiring and connection very sound. The test of this ability you can know easily, If your project stops working after the last screw of the cabinet is tightened, Then we need to improve.
“The goal is a site where the learning of electronics is hands-on and fun. And the SPICE circuit simulator is a great software tool to achieve that goal. It hit me the first time I used SPICE – simulating is fun! And because it’s easy to use, I’ve spent a lot of time building and exploring circuits.” – Rick
eCircuit Center – Spice Schematics
SPICE is capable of performing both AC (frequency) Analysis and Transient (time) Analysis. SPICE also performs a number of other analyses like DC, Sensitivity, Noise and Distortion.
SPICE Basics, SPICE Commands, Circuit Collection
“At the core of the function generator is a triangle wave generator. How do you generate a triangle wave? The most common way is to get a capacitor and then alternate charging it and discharging it. But how to you get a nice linear ramp across the capacitor?”
Triangle and Square-Wave Generator
Simulation Circuit Examples –
- Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA) Op Amp
- Single-Supply AC Inverting Amplifier
- Instrumentation Amp (3 Op Amp)
- Sensor Bridge with Current Bias
- The PID Controller
- Pulse Width Modulation
- Precision Half-Wave Rectifier
The TL494 incorporates all the functions required in the construction of a pulse-width-modulation (PWM) control circuit on a single chip. Designed primarily for power-supply control, this device offers the flexibility to tailor the power-supply control circuitry to a specific application.
PWM Control Circuit – TL494
- Complete PWM Power-Control Circuitry
- Uncommitted Outputs for 200-mA Sink or Source Current
- Output Control Selects Single-Ended or Push-Pull Operation
- Internal Circuitry Prohibits Double Pulse at Either Output
- Variable Dead Time Provides Control Over Total Range
- Internal Regulator Provides a Stable 5-V Reference Supply With 5% Tolerance
- Circuit Architecture Allows Easy Synchronization
The TL494 contains two error amplifiers, an on-chip adjustable oscillator, a dead-time control (DTC) comparator, a pulse-steering control flip-flop, a 5-V, 5%-precision regulator, and output-control circuits.
TL494 Related Links