Discrete Passive (Page 2)

Capacitors, Resistors, Zeners, Diodes, Bipolar Transistors, FET.

Royal Philips Electronics of the Netherlands is a global leader in healthcare, lifestyle and technology, delivering products, services and solutions through the brand promise of “sense and simplicity”.

Philips – Tech Innovator and Inventor

The company was founded in 1891 by Gerard Philips, a maternal cousin of Karl Marx, in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. Its first products were light bulbs ‘and other electrotechnical equipment’. Its first factory remains as a museum. Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. – Wikipedia

Vintage Philips Tape Recorder Transistor based

(I have fixed some of these decades ago, if i remember right, it had only transistors, no chips. I am not sure if it was only germanium transistors, but i used both silicon and germanium devices to repair – ananth)

Vintage Philips Tape Recorder Transistor based

Discover everything you need to know about the LED phenomenon. What is a LED? How does it work? Learn about the LED basics

Philips - Tech Innovator and Inventor
From Components and Materials – Industrial Electronics and Instruments

Electronic components, materials and power supplies to factory automation systems, anechoic chambers, test systems and more.TDK EMC components.

TDK – Electronic components and Materials

TDK was founded in Japan on 7 December 1935 to manufacture iron-based magnetic material ferrite, which had been recently invented by Yogoro Kato and Takeshi Takei. In 1952 they began production of magnetic tapes, with compact cassette tapes following in 1966; it is for these that the company is most widely noted

CAT is free software which displays the electric characteristics of TDK EMC components. Please use as a tool when EMC components are selected.

Sensors from TDK

Sensors from TDK

Seoul Semiconductor is a Korean company manufacturing Optical Semiconductors like LED devices for Lighting. They have designed a LED chip called Acriche, a semiconductor light source that operates directly from AC power or Mains Power, useful for residential and commercial lighting.

LED devices from Seoul Semiconductor

Z5 series is very small size (3.5*3.5*2.0mm), ceramic-based package, and large radiation plate make heat management of Z5 easy.

Z Power LED – Z5M

Z-Power-LED-Seoul.jpg

High-intensity SMD LEDs Z5M/P with a thermally optimized design for general lighting. Even available with a color rendering index(CRI) of 90.

GE Lumination offers a wide range of world-class, environmentally responsible LED solutions and systems for signage, architectural, transportation, display lighting and general illumination applications. Lumination is a GE Consumer & Industrial business in collaboration with Nichia.

GE – LED Lighting Solutions

Solid-state lighting solutions can be built using Vio LED. Energy savings, long life and robustness. “Vio LEDs combine 405 nm violet chips with proprietary phosphors to create a natural white light.” Warm white light, similar to Edison Filament Lamp.

Vio White LED – Lumination GE

From Tech Products Preview – Electronic Tools and Industrial Equipment

Some Features

  • 1, 4 and 7 watt designs
  • 70 CRI (45 lpw) & 85 CRI (38 lpw)
  • 180° beam angle
  • 70% lumen maintenance at 50,000 hours under normal operation

electrocube – Custom Film Capacitors EMI Filters electrocube - Custom Film Capacitors EMI Filters

Design, manufacturing, sourcing of specialty passive and power components.

  • Film Capacitors, AC/DC, IGBT, Banks
  • EMI Filters, High Rel. Custom
  • Foil Transformers, Transformer Rectifier Units
  • RC (Resistor Capacitor) Networks, Circuit Protection
  • Many other related custom products

Custom EMI Filters

Full custom design, manufacture and testing, complete inductor winding and filter production facilities.

Bourns Components and Solutions Trimmer Preset

“The invention of the first miniature linear motion and vane position potentiometers propelled their tiny business into a global corporation, manufacturing a range of products that impact almost every aspect of today’s electronics industry. “

“From its earliest days, Bourns established a benchmark for quality, value, and innovation. In 1952, Bourns patented the world’s first trimming potentiometer, trademarked Trimpot . Bourns”

Other products the design and manufacture are in the areas of Circuit Protection, Connectors, Diodes, Encoders, LED Shunt Protectors, Magnetic Products, Microelectronic Modules and Position Sensors.

Protection Assembly with Technology

Integrated Protection Assembly (IPA) Model 2360.

This provides station protection and subscriber interface in a single housing, protecting homes from the potential hazards of overvoltage faults due to lightning or power-cross. This also features Multi Stage Protection (MSP) technology, offering a protection product with the best of both technologies – the robust, current-handling capability of a gas discharge tube and the quick reaction time of solid state protection. The product is ideal for today’s high-speed broad bandwidth services.

The Electric double layer capacitor has the main use of a Charge Reservoir. That means a large amount of electrical charge in a small footprint.

These charge/discharge quickly unlike the battery, There is no Electrical Energy to Chemical Energy Transformation and back, like in batteries. It may need caution in design and usage as they may carry a lot of punch.

Also known as Ultracap, Goldcap, Supercap – Electric double layer capacitor, In Farads, like batteries, Energy Reservoirs or eFlywheel.

In Product Safety terms; The Battery has a Internal Resistance, but a Supercap does not. When used in Values like 100F and is fully charged, an Internal or External Breakdown of Insulation or Short Circuit may Occur. The Heat Generated is Enormous. Murphy’s Law says such things happen..

Supercap at Wikipedia

Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC) or SuperCapacitor

DLCAP – Electric Double Layer Capacitor – Nippon

They have a range of Supercapacitors upto 2500F at 2.5V and Modules like 400F and 15V. There are two types Prismatic and Cylindrical. In comparison to batteries – multi-million cycles of charge-discharge is possible.

EverCAP – Double Layer Capacitors – Nichicon

They have two types, High Power Density for a large current discharge. High Energy Density for a long backup time. Over a million Charge/Discharge cycles. High Efficiency. Capable of fully discharging to zero volts.

Some things to note for a design engineer. The EDLC or Electric Double Layer Capacitors …

  • Specified Endurance and end of life.
  • Excess Vibration can alter Specs.
  • Caution – The maximum temperature.
  • Specs are dependent on Temperature.
  • Maintain Low ripple current on Charge/Discharge.
  • It is Polarized like a Electrolytic cap.
  • Not Hot parts or Heatsink near cap.

The Double Layer Capacitors developed by WIMA are storage capacitors with highest capacitance values in the Farad range.

GTO Capacitors – WIMA

They are among others suited to serve as batteries, can deliver considerably higher currents for a short time, however, and are maintenance free.

SuperCapacitors – WIMA

These EDLC supercap has one-tenth of energy, but delivers over 10 times of power due to ultra low ESR. In Comparison with a Battery. A Lifetime of over 500,000 cycles.

Xelled Supercapacitor – Vinatech

Some Specs

  • Rating 2.5V / 2.7V
  • High power density (low internal resistance)
  • High electrical current, instant power back-up applied

Read more about Supercapacitors.

Selecting the parts for your product design, choosing the components intelligently is a part of Product Design Engineering.

Budget, Availability, Size, Alternate Vendors, Product Life and Quantity to be manufactured are some factors that determine the selection of a prudent and experienced design professional.

To choose the right type of part, an exhuastive knowledge of the behaviour of passives and discretes is essential. Some points i remember among the things that i learnt the hard way are listed below.

  • Over rate components at least double, if you need a 1A-100V-100uS diode, use a 2A-200V-50uS diode.
  • Electrolytic capacitors have a shelf life, if you need to store them you have to charge them every month.
  • Gold plating is used in connectors because it has low contact resistance and does not corrode or react
  • Use a 100uF and 0.1uF CD in parallel to filter because the inductance of 100uF is a lot (the electrodes are wound as in a coil) and high frequency passes over and is filtered by the 0.1uF which has negligible inductance.
  • Ceramic capacitors leak a bit, electrolytics leak a lot but plastic or mica capacitors do not leak at all, near perfect. An oscillator with a RC time setting needs a plastic cap for stability.
  • In industrial electronics equipment, connectors are a source of many problems, hence avoid connectors. vibrations, corrosion and frequent usage will result in strange problems.
  • Small signal diode 1N4148 switches at 4nS, current of 70mA and 70V withstand capacity.
  • 2N2222 and 2N2907 form a fast switching NPN-PNP pair and have been around for decades.
  • LED displays are best indoors and are not so good for sunlit outdoors, LCD is good for that.
  • All electromechanical parts like switches, relays, connectors and pots have limited number of operations.
  • Failure of parts are when parts are stressed beyond limit, bad environment, misuse, infant mortality and normal aging.
  • Most pots have a dielectric insulation between metal pot shaft and terminals of 1KV or more. Some commercial pots may have lesser breakdown voltage and that will be a product safety issue. So either way use Plastic Knobs or pots with plastic shafts.