Electrical (Page 2)

Electrical Engineering, Control Panels and Alternative Energy.

Presented in a Easy to understand, layman language. This Energy and Electrical Basics is a must for all who want to save power and lead a Green Lifestyle.

Undertand your Appliance and The Energy Supplier. The way electricity is generated and reaches your home.

CIPCO Energy Library – Electrical Study

A class in basic electricity and how the electric utility industry generates and delivers power to customers. Designed primarily for use by utility field representatives who need to understand electrical principles. – Fundamentals of Electricity Covers the subject of motors from an explanation of how they work, to the advantages/disadvantages of adjustable speed drives, see Motors & Drives section.

Complete descriptive information on closed- and open-loop geothermal heat pump systems. Residential, multifamily and commercial applications are all covered. – Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

First note a important point, HV is dangerous and the behavior of HV is shockingly unpredictable.

Jim shown caged by Faraday but protected by the law of Gauss. Two medium sized Tesla coils from Brian Basura and Ross Overton were used to zap at him on April 15th … A true story – The Electrical Adventures of Jim

The Electrical Adventures of Jim Lux

Humidity, clothing, footwear, gloves and furniture all add to the safety factors. Not to mention the special insulators and probes in plastic and ceramic that guards your body from a fatal mishap.

First you should be very capable in using normal electrical equipment with proper prior training. Then you should have experience in Mains power and energy systems. Lastly you should be above 20 Yrs of age and Learn HV theory and Practice under a Very experienced professional in that Specialization. Jim Lux has created some valuable pages on HV.

High Voltage Experimenter’s Handbook

There is no harm whatsoever now in studying and mastering the theory and also teaching others about the energy that is in high voltage. HV in HF is even more funny.

All that can be invented is already invented by nature. Man can only uncover a few facts and write about it. Start with this handbook. Life is precious, take care.

More EE Stuff at Jim Lux’s Web site

Useful resource on Power Quality, Radio Telemetry, T&M and Interfacing.

Technical Resource – Marc Dekenah

Economical Impulse Generator, Measuring in Excess of 1kV, “Soft Earthing” Instruments and A Real LAN twist cable are pages you must read.

Marc’s Technical Pages; knowledge-base of Faultlink International, an independent electrical / electronics fault investigation & analysis consultancy.

Marc is an independent electrical/electronic fault investigation and analysis consultant with over 25 years of industrial electrics/electronics experience as Consultant, System Engineer, Technical Director, Design Engineer and more.

Connecting Up For Intermittent Nuisance Trips

Connecting Up For Intermittent/Nuisance Trips

“Intermittent trips are circuit breakers rightfully operating because of an unknown cause or fault. Nuisance trips are a breaker deeming a non-existent fault has occurred and, in so doing, operates without need.”

“Faultlink International is a fully independent broad-range electrical/electronics fault investigation and analysis consultancy.”

FaultLink International – Electrical Power Diagnostics

This Insulation Testing Reference by AEMC Instruments is a Must Read for all Instrumentation and Electrical Professionals. Even Students and Enthusiasts who want to learn more about Insulation, can find this informative. The other reference articles also are of Learning Interest. Insulation Testing is a Part of Power, Energy, Green, Solar Systems as well. It is an Important part of Product Safety.

Megohmmeters/Insulation – AMEC 6505 5000V Megohmmeters

Read – Understanding Insulation Resistance Testing

AEMC is an industry leader in current measurement probes, power quality analyzers, ground resistance testers and insulation resistance testers. It was Founded in 1893.

AEMC Instruments – 200 Foxborough Blvd., Foxborough, MA 02035 USA

Seen on the right is the Megohmmeter from AEMC. 6505 is a portable battery/mains powered instrument in a rugged field case.

This Features include automatic calculation and presentation of the Dielectric Absorption Ratio (DAR) and Polarization Index (PI). The Model 6505 displays the test voltage, insulation resistance and the leakage current during the test.

Temperature and Pressure Controllers form a large part of Process control Instrumentation. Then you have Flow, Humidity and many more custom parameters.

All Real Life Physical Phenomena are reduced to Analog Numbers by Sensors and Transducers. This analog value is amplified and linearized and brought into standardized windows like 1-5 Volts or 4-20mA and more.

These Analog Values go to Analog Closed Loop Controllers or Meters for Measurement and Control. In Embedded Controllers, the Analog is converted to Digital ( At least 12 bit, 8 bits are cheap not used for industrial automation, more than 16 bits is not required as sensor accuracy/linearity never transgress such precision )

Embedded Process Controllers may use Microcontrollers with Floating Point Arithmetic, Lookup Table, Logic and Basic Math. Advanced Controllers may use DSP and Complex Algorithms for Adaptive control. (self learn, fuzzy logic.).

There is a instruction sheet for a 3 wire transmitter. It Amplifies the uV signals from a K type Thermocouple, Chromel-Alumel. The output is a strong 4-20mA which is fit for looping and driving a Controller an Alarm and an Analog Recorder too.

8 Bits D/A may be used when a control signal is needed, like 4-20 mA Control Output driving a Thyristor PWM bank. Here 8 Bit is enough when the thyristor bank drives large heaters. The thermal inertia and delay makes very precise control nearly impossible.

When a parameter needs to be controlled in a tiny area, precision control is possible. A 16 Bit control signal is required. The system/thermal design here is more important than the controller, they have to be tandem for obtaining repeatable precision control.

Read More about this here – Electronics Theory – Industrial Control Panels

The Enhancement of Mains power system for Homes and Small Business is critical. The population is more now and the use of electricity for more appliances becomes inevitable, this makes power shortages imminent.

The power to Homes can be distributed by two types of phase lines (live), a common neutral and the usual earth. High Phase is for Heaters and Motors and some lighting too. This phase can be shut down on power failure, load management or over use. The other is the Green Energy line, a low current phase which never fails! It is used only for lighting and small and light electronic appliances. It is a limited energy line. That means, so much kWhr for a month, beyond which the line will trip off for the month. This Green Line is augmented by solar, wind or tidal electricity. That way this Green Line is Uninterrupted, but Energy Limited. This will bring a sense of responsibility on the consumer, who will plan the usage of his Green Power Line carefully.

The other High Phase raw line can go off due to Black-out and Brown-outs, when there is a shut down or load balancing. This can also be energy limited at a higher threshold, depending on the number of people in the small business or home. Big Companies have their own Mini Power stations to manage the Power problems, Here also a Green Line can be provided in addition to the mini power stations.

The sensible and frugal, energy consumer can depend on his Green Line to manage his office or home, with no interruption of power. All Home users, Commercial Establishments, Factories and Companies have to become responsible, frugal and austere in the consumption of both electricity and fossil fuels. This not only saves the costs for the company, but the society (read customers) which is the environment they depend on, is also sustained.

Happy Healthy People means more Customers/Consumers, that implies Economic Growth and a Vibrant/Resilient Stock Market.

Power Electronics shows the way – Power Electronic Circuits.

All Electronic Products have interfaces to external electrical circuits. The power supply is also derived using converters or power supplies. Motors, Heaters and Transformers are examples of components in the electric power circuits.

  • 12V lead acid batteries should be charged with a constant current CC and constant voltage charger the CV being 13.6V. Deep discharge and over charging will reduce the cycles.
  • Lead acid batteries need a monthly distilled water update to ensure long life, sealed lead acid dont need attention. Keep lead acid batteries in well ventilated area due to acid fumes.
  • Electric Shock can kill hence take great care, Electrolytic capacitors burst and Transformers catch fire. turn off equipment after use. turn off all electricity when going out of town.
  • Inductive kickback starts a tubelight or automobile as high voltages are produced when current in inductor is turned off. This also is the cause of failure in power semiconductors.
  • Earthing is important, ensure it’s perfect, the neutral to earth could be 5V AC max., also a circuit breaker and fuse a must. Use a electrical earth leakage circuit breaker to protect both man and machine.
  • Extra care should be taken to prevent injury to eyes while working. Also 230V/110V shock can be fatal. working on high energy electrical circuits and power electronics should be with all precautions.
  • You need a Fuse, Circuit breaker and earth leakage circuit breaker for safety against shock and fire hazard.
  • High voltage or current stress, mechanical vibration, user misuse, High Energy stress (freq and voltage), aging (cycles) cause failure.
  • Good earthing, servo motor regulated mains supply, earth leakage circuit breaker and over current circuit breaker, HRC fuse are some safety steps to take.
  • When working with HV or HE circuits wear shoes, keep yourself dry, the supply board should have above protections in red.
  • Use silicone shrink sleeves to insulate or close exposed high voltage wire ends or joints.
  • Sparking at the high voltage mains supply power contacts like a plug can cause electronic gadgets to fail.

Production, especially prototype testing and Pilot Production exposes lot of engineering and serviceability issues. When you mass produce, it is more streamlined, yet the scope for improvement never ends. The process should always be open to feedback and improvements.

  • The tracks or components on a PCB should not be near the mounting holes, the tracks may form electrical connections with the cabinet earth if they touch the pillar, washer or nut-bolt.
  • When you tighten the screws-nuts-bolt, limit torque by feeling or with torque limit screwdrivers, or thread will slip or PCB-Cabinet break, or CRT-Glass-Plastic will crack-shatter.
  • After assembly and testing is over on a board, do not drill-file it, it should have been done before. Else components crack or tracks break or small metal pieces will form shorts.
  • The Mechanical and electro-mechanical must be streamlined before production, for example when fitting the board the screwdriver may slip and break a zener. The product should be engineered in such a way that it fits easily and the testing and quality checks need not be repeated.
  • Some mechanical failures may not be visible but may show up as a field failure after even 3 months. this will make you lose further orders and ruin the reputation. Hence engineering is vital.
  • Alumina-Aluminum oxide powder mixed in epoxy resin (araldite) can make thermally conductive insulating filler, heatsinks. The Alumina must be free of moisture and very dry.
  • When you drive nails into walls ensure that that part of the wall is free of mains, telephone or any wiring.
  • Some pcbs can have hairline cuts or hairline shorts which will make troubleshooting difficult.
  • Never put or remove ICs, cards or plug-in modules when the power to that system is on, power off system wait for some time for caps to discharge, then insert ICs or cards, applies to PCs too, USB and Firewire ports are exceptions as they are hotplug, anyway even in this, take a bit of care.
  • Use RTV (room temperature vulcanizing) silicone rubber compound or Varnish on PCB-devices to avoid corrosion-dust. more so in industrial environment, ships and chemical industries.
  • Whenever you use nuts and bolts to fasten a PCB or parts to a cabinet use a spring washer, double nut or adhesive to prevent slip. When a loose nut falls on the pcb or transformer sparks will fly.
  • Do not mix mechanical and electrical connections, these leads to failures and frequent need of repairs and service.