Electrical (Page 2)

Electrical Engineering, Control Panels and Alternative Energy.

This is an educative and important guide for Electrical Equipment Safety. This can be also applied partially to Power Electronics and Home Energy Systems. Electronic Equipment also have to be maintained by Calibrating them and protecting them from environmental parameters like dust, grime, direct sunlight, moisture, humidity, sea wind (brine), corrosive fumes and chemicals. They should not be even placed near machines like a big lathe, sub-sonic or low frequency vibrations.

Electrical Safety Testing Reference Guide

Electrical Safety is a Serious Issue Electrical Safety in the workplace is the most important job of an electrical worker. No matter how much training one has received or how much employers try to safeguard their workers, Electrical Safety is ultimately the responsibility of the electrical worker.

Electrical Safety Hazards Handbook

Power Studies, Arc-Flash Hazard Labeling, Data Gathering and Inspection, Engineering Services.

The steps to osha electrical safety

Electrical Design, Lighting and most important Earthing or Grounding. Good Reference Articles and Product Reviews.

Electrical Construction and Maintenancee Power Quality, National Electric Code, Construction, V/D/V, Ops, Equipment Rental Industry Resourc

Earthing or Grounding is something Audio Enthusiasts make a lot of fuss about. The Articles here about Balanced Power, Symmetrical Power Systems and Earthing throw light on ways to counter Audio Noise.

AC Power has the 50/60 Hz noise, now more AC noise can be picked up by poorly designed systems when so many gadgets around. These articles are also relevant for the instrumentation engineer. Dissonance is encountered when you build sensitive strain gauge based measurements or while measuring and transmitting micro-volts from a remote sensor to the dashboard/control panel.

Index of Technical Articles About Balanced Power

International leader in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and power quality (PQ). EMC Filters, RFI Suppression Chokes, Feedthrough Components.

Schaffner – @SchaffnerEMC – EMC/EMI components, harmonic filters & magnetic components.

Schaffner – electromagnetic compatibility

Presented in a Easy to understand, layman language. This Energy and Electrical Basics is a must for all who want to save power and lead a Green Lifestyle.

Undertand your Appliance and The Energy Supplier. The way electricity is generated and reaches your home.

CIPCO Energy Library – Electrical Study

A class in basic electricity and how the electric utility industry generates and delivers power to customers. Designed primarily for use by utility field representatives who need to understand electrical principles. – Fundamentals of Electricity Covers the subject of motors from an explanation of how they work, to the advantages/disadvantages of adjustable speed drives, see Motors & Drives section.

Complete descriptive information on closed- and open-loop geothermal heat pump systems. Residential, multifamily and commercial applications are all covered. – Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

First note a important point, HV is dangerous and the behavior of HV is shockingly unpredictable.

Jim shown caged by Faraday but protected by the law of Gauss. Two medium sized Tesla coils from Brian Basura and Ross Overton were used to zap at him on April 15th … A true story – The Electrical Adventures of Jim

The Electrical Adventures of Jim Lux

Humidity, clothing, footwear, gloves and furniture all add to the safety factors. Not to mention the special insulators and probes in plastic and ceramic that guards your body from a fatal mishap.

First you should be very capable in using normal electrical equipment with proper prior training. Then you should have experience in Mains power and energy systems. Lastly you should be above 20 Yrs of age and Learn HV theory and Practice under a Very experienced professional in that Specialization. Jim Lux has created some valuable pages on HV.

High Voltage Experimenter’s Handbook

There is no harm whatsoever now in studying and mastering the theory and also teaching others about the energy that is in high voltage. HV in HF is even more funny.

All that can be invented is already invented by nature. Man can only uncover a few facts and write about it. Start with this handbook. Life is precious, take care.

More EE Stuff at Jim Lux’s Web site

Useful resource on Power Quality, Radio Telemetry, T&M and Interfacing.

Technical Resource – Marc Dekenah

Economical Impulse Generator, Measuring in Excess of 1kV, “Soft Earthing” Instruments and A Real LAN twist cable are pages you must read.

Marc’s Technical Pages; knowledge-base of Faultlink International, an independent electrical / electronics fault investigation & analysis consultancy.

Marc is an independent electrical/electronic fault investigation and analysis consultant with over 25 years of industrial electrics/electronics experience as Consultant, System Engineer, Technical Director, Design Engineer and more.

Connecting Up For Intermittent Nuisance Trips

Connecting Up For Intermittent/Nuisance Trips

“Intermittent trips are circuit breakers rightfully operating because of an unknown cause or fault. Nuisance trips are a breaker deeming a non-existent fault has occurred and, in so doing, operates without need.”

“Faultlink International is a fully independent broad-range electrical/electronics fault investigation and analysis consultancy.”

FaultLink International – Electrical Power Diagnostics

This Insulation Testing Reference by AEMC Instruments is a Must Read for all Instrumentation and Electrical Professionals. Even Students and Enthusiasts who want to learn more about Insulation, can find this informative. The other reference articles also are of Learning Interest. Insulation Testing is a Part of Power, Energy, Green, Solar Systems as well. It is an Important part of Product Safety.

Megohmmeters/Insulation – AMEC 6505 5000V Megohmmeters

Read – Understanding Insulation Resistance Testing

AEMC is an industry leader in current measurement probes, power quality analyzers, ground resistance testers and insulation resistance testers. It was Founded in 1893.

AEMC Instruments – 200 Foxborough Blvd., Foxborough, MA 02035 USA

Seen on the right is the Megohmmeter from AEMC. 6505 is a portable battery/mains powered instrument in a rugged field case.

This Features include automatic calculation and presentation of the Dielectric Absorption Ratio (DAR) and Polarization Index (PI). The Model 6505 displays the test voltage, insulation resistance and the leakage current during the test.

Temperature and Pressure Controllers form a large part of Process control Instrumentation. Then you have Flow, Humidity and many more custom parameters.

All Real Life Physical Phenomena are reduced to Analog Numbers by Sensors and Transducers. This analog value is amplified and linearized and brought into standardized windows like 1-5 Volts or 4-20mA and more.

These Analog Values go to Analog Closed Loop Controllers or Meters for Measurement and Control. In Embedded Controllers, the Analog is converted to Digital ( At least 12 bit, 8 bits are cheap not used for industrial automation, more than 16 bits is not required as sensor accuracy/linearity never transgress such precision )

Embedded Process Controllers may use Microcontrollers with Floating Point Arithmetic, Lookup Table, Logic and Basic Math. Advanced Controllers may use DSP and Complex Algorithms for Adaptive control. (self learn, fuzzy logic.).

There is a instruction sheet for a 3 wire transmitter. It Amplifies the uV signals from a K type Thermocouple, Chromel-Alumel. The output is a strong 4-20mA which is fit for looping and driving a Controller an Alarm and an Analog Recorder too.

8 Bits D/A may be used when a control signal is needed, like 4-20 mA Control Output driving a Thyristor PWM bank. Here 8 Bit is enough when the thyristor bank drives large heaters. The thermal inertia and delay makes very precise control nearly impossible.

When a parameter needs to be controlled in a tiny area, precision control is possible. A 16 Bit control signal is required. The system/thermal design here is more important than the controller, they have to be tandem for obtaining repeatable precision control.

Read More about this here – Electronics Theory – Industrial Control Panels

The Enhancement of Mains power system for Homes and Small Business is critical. The population is more now and the use of electricity for more appliances becomes inevitable, this makes power shortages imminent.

The power to Homes can be distributed by two types of phase lines (live), a common neutral and the usual earth. High Phase is for Heaters and Motors and some lighting too. This phase can be shut down on power failure, load management or over use. The other is the Green Energy line, a low current phase which never fails! It is used only for lighting and small and light electronic appliances. It is a limited energy line. That means, so much kWhr for a month, beyond which the line will trip off for the month. This Green Line is augmented by solar, wind or tidal electricity. That way this Green Line is Uninterrupted, but Energy Limited. This will bring a sense of responsibility on the consumer, who will plan the usage of his Green Power Line carefully.

The other High Phase raw line can go off due to Black-out and Brown-outs, when there is a shut down or load balancing. This can also be energy limited at a higher threshold, depending on the number of people in the small business or home. Big Companies have their own Mini Power stations to manage the Power problems, Here also a Green Line can be provided in addition to the mini power stations.

The sensible and frugal, energy consumer can depend on his Green Line to manage his office or home, with no interruption of power. All Home users, Commercial Establishments, Factories and Companies have to become responsible, frugal and austere in the consumption of both electricity and fossil fuels. This not only saves the costs for the company, but the society (read customers) which is the environment they depend on, is also sustained.

Happy Healthy People means more Customers/Consumers, that implies Economic Growth and a Vibrant/Resilient Stock Market.

Power Electronics shows the way – Power Electronic Circuits.