Crystal Oscillators are the Time Base on a wristwatch or a home clock, analog or digital, Mechanical clocks have become rare due to the Maintenance and Accuracy. Some crystals can change dimensions on a electric force, some generate electricity on Mechanical Strain.
Ceramic Resonators – “The ceramic componets are made of high stability piezoelectric ceramics that functions as a mechanical resonator. The frequency is primary adjusted by the size and thikness of the ceramic element.”
In the mechanical gramophone a metal needle and a horn would amplify the sound. When Record players came, the use of magnetic pickups made the needle size a bit smaller but the signal was weak. The crystal type pickups made the needle thinner and the electricity generated by crystal moving on the grooves was large, in mV. A preamp was rarely required. But Equalization preprocessing of audio was needed, to match the ear response. The electric gramophone made LP or Long Playing Record Players possible. It is analogous to DVD having more capacity than CDROM.
“When a crystal of quartz is properly cut and mounted, it can be made to distort in an electric field by applying a voltage to an electrode near or on the crystal. This property is known as piezoelectricity.”
Crystals and Their Applications
- Introduction to Fundamental Crystal Oscillators
- Introduction to Quartz Frequency Standards
- Ultra Low Power 32KHz Crystal Oscillator
- The Design Principles Of Crystal Oscillators
- Microcontroller Clock-Crystal, Resonator..
- Some Very Basic Oscillator Theory
- Crystal Oscillator Tutorial Articles
- Technical Literature – Frequency Electronics Inc.