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HyperPhysics – Educational Resource Physics Electronics

HyperPhysics is an exploration environment for concepts in physics which employs concept maps and other linking strategies to facilitate smooth navigation. For the most part, it is laid out in small segments or “cards”, true to its original development in HyperCard. The entire environment is interconnected with thousands of links, reminiscent of a neural network..

Electronics Concepts at HyperPhysics

Students should go thru this website from cover-to-cover, It is a work of knowledge that is priceless

Ampere Law at HyperPhysics

Ampere’s Law at HyperPhysics

“Ampere’s Law states that for any closed loop path, the sum of the length elements times the magnetic field in the direction of the length element is equal to the permeability times the electric current enclosed in the loop.”

Materials and Inventory Management

The Inventory of a Firm should be Open within an Organization. Searching with a browser, Integrateable with departmental webware/intranet. With a very easy readable non-programmer friendly API.

Components Parts Kits and Materials

The Search must be based on Multiple Keywords, Filters or Tags. Dormant Inventory and Parts/Equipment/Furniture not on any live project anymore, Excess Inventory and Obsoleted Parts due to Tech Advancement; should be flagged. This enables other departments to use it, consume it for Maintenance or Research projects or integrate into new designs if not-obsolete.

electronic components

If found to be valueless, damaged or worn-out by all departments and responsible engineers, then inventory should be sold or given away. The Employees can be the first customers for an inhouse Corporate Garage Sale. An un-organized, complexly-computerized and non-transparent/blocked Stores will end up in a Flea Market.

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Designing Mixed Analog Chips and Circuits

These are some updates on Analog and Mixed Design pages online. A/D Converters are important because the world is full of mainly analog signals and parameters. Processing, Filtering, Analyzing and Computing data is best done by software (firmware).

These days the term of firmware can only be used for very small devices. This is because we have more memory, flash and computation ability in tiny footprints. So even a mini gadget can have a Tiny OS sometimes even a Virtual Machine. What is a VM it is is a OS in a OS. Java, .Net.

Time-interleaved Analog-to-digital Converters

Time-interleaved Analog-to-digital Converters

TIADCs and TI-ADCs an Article by Dr. Christian Vogel.
“The idea of a time-interleaved ADC (TIADC) is to use a system of M parallel channels, which alternately take one sample (time-interleaved sampling). Thereby, the sampling frequency of one channel does not need to fulfill the Nyquist criterion; however, when in the digital domain all samples are merged into one output sequence the overall sampling frequency fulfills the Nyquist criterion”

The Designer’s Guide Community – A Guide to Simulation & Modeling for Analog & RF Circuit Designers

A Site where analog, mixed-signal and RF circuit designers come to learn about simulation, modeling and design. There are a number of very practical papers on simulation and modeling on the Analysis, Modeling, and Theory pages. A collection of useful example models can be found on the Verilog-AMS page.

Designing Analog Chips by Hans Camenzind

Hans Camenzind book on Analog CMOS design is a good reference for students and covers Power Electronic concepts like Switching Regulators and Low Drop-Out Regulators. The Delta-Sigma Converter A/D and Zero-Crossing Detectors on Mixed Design. Communications circuits like Timers and Oscillators . Phase-Locked Loops and Filters too.

Water Level Controller with Reed Sensor

This is a way by which you can monitor the level of fluids like water in a tank. Based on data from the sensor you can control things like solenoids or motors as required or even turn on a buzzer, hooter or annunciator in a control panel. A simple Water Level Controller.

Description.

Look at the picture on the right, the float can be a Styrofoam type with a couple of ceramic magnets stuck inside. The float must move freely up and down a long plastic pipe of around 10 mm dia. If the fluid is not water but a solvent then design a non-soluble float or coat the float you made with something like an epoxy resin.

Water Level Controller

Then you need to assemble a small circuit within the long plastic pipe. Many reed relays with a chain of resistors in series has to be inserted in the pipe. The resistor and the glass reed relays should be in different levels of the pipe where you need an alarm or indication. Seal the pipe hermetically at both ends with epoxy resin after taking out a shielded cable of just 2 wires + 1 ground shield.

When the fluid level changes, the float moves up or down with it, when the float moves over a section of pipe where the reed relay is mounted, the magnets on the float make the reed operate and the resistance of the sensor changes.

The resistance is measured and the alarm can be operated as you like. The advantage of this arrangement is the electric circuit does not come in contact with the fluid, no sparking risk.

Reed Relay. It was invented by Dr. W. B. Ellwood at Bell Labs in 1936. Contacts are in a sealed glass tube filled with inert gas like in a bulb, so they do not corrode. It is faster than regular relays and as no spring is used it has a longer mechanical life. The two contacts are ferromagnetic blades plated with rhodium. When you take a magnet close by, the contacts touch each other. You can also put the reed in a coil, then when you energize the coil the reed operates. Used in telecommunication.OKI is one manufacturer of this type of component.

Design and Caution.

When you drive inductive loads you have to use RC snubbers, freewheeling diodes, varistors or zeners. when you drive lamps the cold current is high so use thermistors. The Reed relay is best used in telecom and instrumentation and avoided in power electronics. It can handle high RF frequency as the path of current is straight and footprint small.

Here is a Circuit to Build and Learn this Concepts – This can help make a Water level controller from sump to overhead tank. This can also be used in industrial fluid level control like oils and thick fluids. It may not work with highly viscous fluids or sticky mixes.

Fluid or Water Level with Reed Relays

“When you use the DMM or digital multimeter, try not to use it for high voltages and currents, use external shunts and attenuators instead. If you try to measure 230V AC in the Ohms mode or in the Current mode with the probe in the current socket then you will see fumes in your DMM and a hole in your pocket !!”

– Solderman Talks 1702

IEEE – Electrical Standards and Publications

The IEEE, a non-profit organization, is the world’s leading professional association for the advancement of technology. IEEE produces over 30% of the world’s literature in the electrical and electronics engineering and computer science fields.  These include Electrical Standards and Reference Publications.

IEEE – Electrical Standards and Publications

The full name of the IEEE is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., although the organization is referred to by the letters I-E-E-E and pronounced Eye-triple-E.

IEEE - Electrical Standards and Publications

IEEE at Wikipedia

“IEEE is one of the leading standards-making organizations in the world. IEEE performs its standards making and maintaining functions through the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA). ”

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE-SA) is an organization within IEEE that develops global standards in a broad range of industries, including: power and energy, biomedical and health care, information technology and robotics, telecommunication and home automation, transportation, nanotechnology, information assurance, and many more.

IEEE Popular Standards

These volunteer training modules are meant to help volunteers understand how IEEE functions and to explain the many services IEEE has to offer. The Popular Standards include National Electrical Safety Code, Color Books for industrial and commercial power plants and Design Automation.

Modbus-IDA – Distributed automation systems

Group of individuals and firms supporting and helping the implementation of Modbus communication protocol suite and the evolution to address architectures for distributed automation systems.

Modbus Communication Protocol Suite

Some Activities of the Modbus Organization are …to Encourage, support and evolve …

  • Participation in standards activities worldwide.
  • Leading the evolution of the Modbus protocol and its variants.
  • Modbus across a broad spectrum of physical layers and transmission media.
  • Conformance testing program to insure greater interoperability of Modbus devices.

Some Facts –

Modbus Protocol is a messaging structure developed by Modicon (Schneider Electric) in 1979. It is used to establish master-slave/client-server communication between intelligent devices. It is a de facto standard, truly open and the most widely used network protocol in the industrial manufacturing environment.

The semiconductor industry has implemented a Network Communication Standard and an Object Messaging Protocol using Modbus TCP/IP. This allows SEMI Sensor Bus compatible sensors to communicate with each other using Modbus TCP/IP.

Modbus mMint

The mMINT (Modbus Master INCOM Network Translator) Module is an Eaton accessory product that will provide communication between a Modbus RTU network and an INCOM network.

The mMINT module is a slave device on the Modbus network and as such requires a master that will exchange register objects with the mMINT module. 32 products can be connected to INCOM network port (246 unique addresses maximum).