Technical-Reference (Page 3)

Some very useful, educative and interactive Java Applets. Tutorials around Power Electronics. Includes Diode and SCR Circuits, Controlled 1/3 Phase SCR-Thyristor Bridge Rectifier and Switch-Mode Power Supplies SMPS.

Power electronics-interactive text

They include Simple diode, SCR and thyristor controlled bridge rectifier circuits and most important the Switch-Mode Power Supply SMPS.

Interactive Power Electronics Seminar (iPES)

Interactive Power Electronics Seminar

The following Java applets are part of the Introductory Course on Power Electronics taught by Prof. Kolar at the ETH Zurich. The interactive and animated applets are used as aid for teaching in the classroom and are displayed using a laptop and a beamer. Furthermore, the applets do provide an opportunity for the students to experiment and learn at home more efficiently.

Simulations like these can be made with various methods. Client Side and Server Side. Flash, Java and Ajax(with dhtml) can be client side. Server side are numerous. Perl and CGI, Python, PHP and many more.

Small Tutorials can be made in Flash. More Flexibility and Power in Java. Ajax (implies even DHTML, JS, CSS) also good. Client only Tutors. But larger simulations or Web applications means server side computing. Here the Client side is just GUI and some basic reflexes and data caching. The other CPU/Data load is moved online to servers.

As tools are moving online even EDA, ASIC design and Chip Programming can be made into Webapps or SaaS – Software as a service. This also safeguards the IP and Codebase of developer/programmer/firms better.

Here some power electronics design info is available. Switching-Mode Power Supply Design

At Alexandre Manuel Mota‘s pages you will find – Op Amps for Everyone Design Guide, History of Switched Mode Power Supplies, DC Power Supply Handbook, SWITCHMODE Power Supply Reference Manual, Linear & Switching Voltage Reference Handbook. The above PDF files seem to be good study material, before you design and build your next power supply, SMPS or AC/DC converter. – delabs

Since its founding in 1988, Circuit Cellar has delivered exactly what its paying subscribers demand-intensive, exploratory articles about hardware and software methods for embedded-control systems.

Circuit Cellar – The Magazine for Computer Applications

Circuit Cellar Ink, the best magazine devoted to hardware and embedded computer development, or “What’s Inside the Box”.

Index to Circuit Cellar Ink – Dave Tweed

“By joining forces with Elektor International Media in 2009, we’ve taken the meaning of “global contest” to new levels. Engineers hail from the U.S., Germany, Netherlands, France, Spain, India, and more, to see who has the most skill and ingenuity to take their design ideas from an innovative concept to a winning solution!”
Design Challenges

Portable Power Quality Meter

“The Portable Power Quality Meter uses an RL78 MCU to read power factor, total harmonic distortion, line frequency, voltage, and electrical consumption information and stores the data for analysis.”

Portable Power Quality Meter

Ralph Berres built this workspace

Circuit Cellar has many Workspace Reviews too. Here is the workspace of Ralph Berres built for his radio and metrology projects.

Circuit Cellar has always been written by engineers, for engineers.

Hardware Book. Internet’s largest free collection of connector pinouts and cable descriptions. Connectors, Pinouts for connectors, buses, Cables, How to build serial cables and many other cables. Adapters How to build adapters. tables with info. like AWG.

HwB – The Hardware Book – Joakim Ögren


  • Universal Serial Bus (USB)
  • Binary conversion
  • Serial Port Loopback (9 CheckIt)
  • Ethernet 10/100/1000Base-T


The Hardware Book at – in Window Help Files

A Phil Koopman – Associate Professor at Carnegie Mellon University in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE). His vast experience includes wearable computers, embedded networking and autonomous vehicle safety.

Better Embedded System Software Blog

Better Embedded System Software by Phil Koopman

This book gives concrete approaches to achieving better embedded software in 29 different areas. Discusses topics on related to effective design, testing, and deployment of software for real time embedded systems.

Related Reading

delabs Notes – There is also something i like Paper Planes.

Fly’N Things – Amazing Paper Airplanes

These are high tech jigs, fixtures and instrumentation/automation gizmos that bill built. Electrical gizmo builder for the UNLV Physics Dept.

Bill O’Donnell – Tech Gizmo Builder

These projects are advanced and not for a beginner student or newbie hobbyists. These pages are knowledgable and will help students and DIY enthusiasts understand more about Lasers, Precision Temperature Control and stepper motors among other things.

Bill Tech Gizmo Builder

Auto Fill Circuit for Laser Cooling Loop – Ethernet Data Logging

Here is an automation solution with a ethernet usage. The code and diagrams are also there. This is something that covers many aspects of engineering in one project. Try such things out to learn, only after you have mastered the basics.

“The Ethernet connection is based on an XPORT form Lantronics. Basically it lets you use a serial port to send things over Ethernet. A PIC microcontroller with an A/D converter digitizes the pressure, the pressure set point, the high and low pressure alarm points and the supply voltage (since everything is ratio-metric). “

I have made some Web Widgets, these are analog opamp tutors. Interactive Tutorial with Simulated Meters and Potentiometers, demonstrating how Operational Amplifier functions in different configurations.

Interactive Tutorials using Virtual Electronic Components 

Slide the Potentiometers just like you would operate a Sliding Control. Drag the Knob on Pot to increase or decrease the resistance. The Resistance is shown is blue letters and dynamically alters value as you slide the pot.

The mV Source is varied by just moving mouse pointer over the two buttons, no clicking. This reduces finger strain and also you have a long lasting mouse. The mV buttons are special, the variation picks up speed if you let the mouse pointer remain on the button. This is Ramp-up and Ramp-down. This enables you to set it faster with just two buttons.

Finally you have a DVM a Digital Volt Meter that just Displays the Voltage at any Point, this readout value has to be noted down.

Analog Electronics Tutorials

If you wish to examine the code – Analog Tutorials Project Page.

These Digital Tutors are interactive and started with very basic JavaScript and CSS. You can operate the controls and see the Truth Table and Results in LED Displays. Controls include DIP Switches and Push Buttons.

Tutorials on Digital Electronics

Digital Electronics Interactive Tutors

In Electronics Theory Section

Here is a Snapshot of a Live iGoogle Page showing a Digital Preset counter Gadget in Canvas view.
Other Gadgets are Logic Gates Tutor and Digital Timer

Operational Amplifiers

With a few Op-Amps and a regulated Power supply, many Instrumentation and Process control equipment can be designed. The Human Brain understands Numbers, Quantity and it regulation very well ! On the right you can see a analog controller based on opamps and discrete devices. A Heater, Fan and Motor is regulated, controlled and timed for a process.

Analog Controller based on Opamps
Analog is about numbers, the circuits can be understood and designed mathematically or empirically. Designing and Building a True RMS Rectifier with Op-Amps, will help a designer digest many Op-Amp capabilities.

Read this to learn to use Op-Amps – Basic Semiconductor Circuits Manual

Analog Op-Amp Circuits

Things you ought to know about Op-Amps –

OpAmp part numbers from various semiconductor companies are designed for both General purpose and special applications. Some have to be cost-effective for consumer low-cost equipment, while others may be advanced in specs, closing in on an ideal Op-Amp.

Instrumentation opamps are used for accurate and low drift applications. These Op-Amps have stringent specifications and are used in the fields like Aerospace or Medical Electronics. A pre-amplifier for an FM Radio may need to be low-priced. Test Measurement needs Op-Amps which have near ideal specs in the area of measurement or application. CMOS low-power devices are used when designs are made for portable gadgets.

  • Outputs cannot be Loaded beyond the drive capacities, Note Resistors and Output Load.
  • Inputs draw a small bias current and will load the signal sources, compensate design.
  • Op-Ams AF-RF or Switching performance study with Slew rate and Bandwidth.
  • Power consumption of some Op-Amps are more and some very less, choose wisely.
  • Look for Standard Pin-Outs, Price, Popularity and study Abs. Max, AC and DC Specs.
  • Use Packages with multiple Op-Amps like LM324 to save board space and assembly time.
  • Op-Amps and its 1% MFR resistors should have a separate supply and far from hot parts.
  • Ultra Low Offset Voltage is required, when you wish to amplify a DC level of say 500uV.
  • Guard rings to be used for High impedance inputs and EMI-RFI Shielding for AF Amplifiers.
  • Glass epoxy PCB, clean surface, Pins and Tracks protected from Moisture and Chemicals.
  • Avoid Ground Loops, Have regulated Low ripple Power supplies. Dynamic Isolation.

First Read

Op Amps for Everyone by Ron Mancini

Anantha Narayan